Amylase is made in the pancreas. . It is an enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates to allow our body to absorb. . Monitoring amylase levels can identify problems with the pancreas. What is the normal Range for Amylase? 0-130 U/L, what are the Indications for Amylase? Diagnosing: Pancreatitis, pancreatic Duct Obstruction, macroamylasemia.
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The time taken to digest starch (in seconds) was 170, 100, 170, and 100 respectively. One possible reason for seeing a time of 100 seconds at both 37C and 4C was that instead of keeping the reaction tubes in the water-baths or ice baths as the experiment was being performed, they were taken out and left to sit before the. The other two indeed results for 80C and 22C both are indicative that amylase functions less optimally at a temperature other than 37C. These results indicate that temperature does have an effect on amylases ability to digest starch. At 80C much of the enzyme could have been denatured explaining the extra 70 seconds it took from the ideal 100 seconds at 37C. At 22C it still is possible that the reaction might not be so kinetically favorable which explains why the reaction still happens, but 70 seconds slower than at 37C. The difference in times might have been even greater if the lab protocol was followed where it called for time measurements every 30 seconds. Instead time measurements were taken every 10 seconds as in the first two experiments. Future experiments could focus on comparing the different modes of inhibition for different classes of amylases as mentioned in figure. Since every class functions to cleave starch in a slightly different way, two different classes can be compared to each other using the above three experiments to test which class of amylase retains more activity when subject to the three different constraints of concentration,. Lab Name: Amylase, what is Amylase in terms of Nursing Labs?
In the first trial however, a possible reason for the illogical results could be the preparation of any of the solutions that were used in the reaction including the starch precipitating out of solution before if had a chance to be mixed with the enzyme. Activity of amylase was also measured at different pHs. It is known that amylase functions optimally at a pH.8, therefore 5 different pHs above and below.8 were tested: 4, 5, 6,7 and. The results in figure 4 show that as a pH of 6-7 was approached the time required for starch to be digested and I2KI to turn yellow was down to 20 and 10 seconds respectively. As we deviated from the ideal pH the time required went. This second experiment functioned as predicted despite using the same reaction mixes as in trial one of the concentration experiment leaving a possibility that the error in the first trial might have been in the way the dilutions were set up, (incorrect pipetting). The results of the pH experiment were expected since changes in pH can affect the shape of an enzyme and alter the shape or charge properties of the substrate so that either the substrate does not bind to the active site or the enzyme cannot. An enzyme can also be denatured by temperature, therefore the activity of amylase was tested at four different temperatures of 80C, 37C, 22c, and 4C as seen in figure. Since amylase is an enzyme found in animal saliva, it functions optimally at body temperature, 37C so it was expected that at 37C the time it takes for starch digestion will remote be lowest.
There was no logical correlation between time and starch digestion as the serial dilutions decreased in concentration of amylase. In the first trial the highest concentration of amylase actually took longer than the lowest concentration of amylase to digest the starch. The 1/16 dilution digested starch the fastest. With these results having no clear explanation, a second trial was set up using a fresh batch of I2ki, new amylase enzyme, and a new starch solution. In the second trial the dilution took 10 seconds less than the, 1/8, and 1/16 dilutions to digest starch and 30 seconds less than the 1/32 dilution. This was a more appropriate result since it was expected that a higher enzyme concentration would react faster than a sample with barely any enzyme or none at all. However, in all cases the sample ran out before the I2KI could start turning yellow. This could be due to the fact that 24 well plates were used instead of 48 well plates, and thus more sample had to be added to see a color change.
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To conclude, i would like to say that I feel this was the most lucid and clear laboratory that we have done up to this point and there really shouldn? T be any changes. Amylase is an enzyme that splits starch (complex sugar chains) into simple sugars, enabling it to be digested and metabolized. Amylase is produced in the: liver, pancreas, salivary glands, fallopian tubes, elevations may pet be found in: Any traumatic injury to any of these structures. Any disease affecting one of these structures.
Pancreatitis, cholecystitis, peritonitis, alcohol poisoning, decreases may occur in: Pre-eclampsia, severe burns. Hepatitis, cirrhosis, normal Values men 50150 U/L, edit women 60180 U/L. Pregnancy 90350 U/L *These are general values taken from a variety of sources. The actual normal values may vary from lab to lab and from one type of testing protocol to another. Source: Operational Medicine 2001, Health Care in Military settings, navmed p-5139, may 1, 2001, b ureau of Medicine and Surgery, department of the navy, 2300 e street nw, washington dc, usa. In the concentration experiment of amylase it was expected that as the concentration of amylase is decreased, it should take longer for the digestion of starch to be completed and therefore less time until the I2ki indicator turns yellow. The results shown did not reflect this hypothesis.
My next prediction was that the iodine and Benedicts tests for saliva would both turn out negative; I postulated correctly again. The last pair of tubes containing a mixture of oatmeal and H20 were also tested with iodine and Benedicts; I predicted that the iodine would be positive but the benedicts would result negative; I was correct once again in my hypotheses. I will now discuss how I came to these predictions. The first test was with a mixture of saliva and oatmeal. I realized almost immediately that sugar, and also starch, would be present. I learned from Chapter 37 in the textbook the enzyme salivary amylase in saliva would react and break down most of the starch in the oatmeal into maltose.
The reason not all of the starch was broken down was because i also learned previously that an enzyme (salivary amylase) can only handle so much of the given substrate (oatmeal starch) before it is exhausted. So, i was right in thinking that there would be an indication of both maltose and starch. In the second test, i knew right away that there wasn? T going to be any starch or sugar in the saliva because: 1) The volunteers rinsed their mouth out before the experiment. 2) The saliva contains only the enzyme and not the substrate or product. So, the saliva definitely did not have starch or sugar. And finally there was the test with the oatmeal and water. I know that the oatmeal contains starch and not maltose and the water does not have any of these substances. This test was merely to show that oatmeal had starch, which the positive iodine test proves clearly.
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Saliva oatmeal, tT1: Iodine / Color blue/black. TT2: Benedicts apple / Color? Saliva, tT3: Iodine (-) / Color? TT4: Benedicts (-) / Color? Oatmeal h20, tT5: Iodine / Color? TT6: Benedicts (-) / Color? I predicted that the mixture of saliva and oatmeal would yield positive results for both the iodine and the benedicts test. My hypothesis was correct.barbing
7) Place five drops of Benedicts in each of the designated containers and place the tubes in the heated beaker for a few minutes or until results. 9) The next step is to place five drops of iodine in the designated test tubes and wait for results. 11) Experiment procedures are complete. Results discussion, by comparing all of the results, one can tell that most of my hypotheses were correct. I will start by listing the results explaining how I came across these amended hypotheses. and (-) stand for positive and negative test results. Iodinetest for starch, benedictstest for sugar.
to supply the needed saliva -saliva ( mL) -six test tubes -Preferably distilled Water ( mL) -five drops in each test. S Solution -five drops in each test tube of Iodine -tube rack -hot plate -beaker with boiling water put on hot plate. Procedure results, this section gives a systematic, detailed explanation on how the experiment was carried out and what happened afterwards. Note: I will sometimes refer to maltose as sugar (and visa versa) as according to the experiment. Procedure, set up test tubes like so: 1) make sure the proper materials listed above are prepared (put tubes in tube rack and start setting up the boiling water beaker) 2) Place the required amount of oatmeal in the mortar and pestle and start grinding. 3) At the same time let the volunteer(s) rinse their mouth with water from the water fountain and then begin to drain saliva into the designated beaker. 4) When finished with the drainage, put the correct amount of saliva into the corresponding test tubes. 5) take the powdered oatmeal and place it in the designated test tubes. 6) take the predetermined amount of water and put it in the designated test tubes.
S indicates maltose with a color change from translucent blue to orange-yellow (with the aid of heat). I will give my hypotheses and the predictions for fuller the results of the experiments. The first experiment called for the mixture of saliva and oatmeal in two test tubes, one for testing starch and one for testing sugar. I hypothesize that the iodine will indicate positive for starch and the benedicts will indicate positive for maltose. The second experiment called for the testing of saliva for starch and sugar, in separate test tubes. I think the test of iodine and Benedict? S will both be negative.
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Salivary Amylase lab (ap bio) Essay, research Paper. Salivary Amylase lab, in this laboratory, i observed the process by which salivary amylase, an enzyme secreted by the salivary glands in the mouth, breaks starch down into maltose. This requires a relatively straightforward experiment with only a couple of indicators, some test tubes, and a starch source. To understand the process, one has to understand chemical reactions with enzymes and the its major role in the digestive system of the human (Chapter 37). Just to refresh the reader, i will define a few words that will appear later on in the lab. Starch is complex compilation of simple sugars (or a polysaccharide) that when broken down into simpler substance, forms two-sugar maltose (a disaccharide). The enzyme required to break down starch, only by simple mixing, is salivary amylase, as described above. The two indicators used in this experiment are chemicals that indicate the presence of the corresponding substances, starch and maltose. Iodine indicates starch with a color change from reddish-brown to black.