Making" and migration of "the swallows 21 as well as by English landscape painting 1 and the "pure" English idiom of the poetry of Thomas Chatterton. 38 In "to autumn bewell argues, keats was at once voicing "a very personal expression of desire for health" 39 and constructing a "myth of a national environment". 37 This "political" element in the poem, 21 Bewell points out, has also been suggested by geoffrey hartman, who expounded a view of "to autumn" as "an ideological poem whose form expresses a national idea". 40 Thomas McFarland, on the other hand, in 2000 cautioned against overemphasizing the "political, social, or historical readings" of the poem, which distract from its "consummate surface and bloom". 41 Most important about "to autumn" is its concentration of imagery and allusion in its evocation of nature, 42 conveying an "interpenetration of livingness and dyingness as contained in the very nature of autumn". 43 Structure edit "to autumn" is a poem of three stanzas, each of eleven lines.
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30 More recently, in 2012, a specific probable location of the cornfield that inspired keats was discussed in an article by richard Marggraf Turley, jayne Archer and Howard Thomas, which draws upon new archival evidence. Traditionally, the water-meadows south of Winchester, along which keats took daily leisurely walks, were assumed to assignment have provided the sights and sounds of his ode. 31 Marggraf Turley, archer and Thomas argue that the ode was more directly inspired by keats's visit to St Giles's Hill—site of a new cornfield—at the eastern extremity of the market city. The land, previously a copse, had recently been turned over to food production to take advantage of high bread prices. This new topography, the authors argue, enables us to see hitherto unsuspected dimensions to keats's engagement with contemporary politics in particular as they pertained to the management of food production and supply, wages and productivity. Tudy of the effect on British literature of the diseases and climates of the colonies, Alan Bewell read "the landscape of 'to autumn as "a kind of biomedical allegory of the coming into being of English climatic space out of its dangerous geographical alternatives.". Keats, with medical training, 34 having suffered chronic illness himself, 35 and influenced like his contemporaries by "colonial medical discourse 36 was deeply aware of this threat. According to bewell, the landscape of "to autumn" presents the temperate climate of rural England vol as a healthful alternative to disease-ridden foreign environments. 37 Though the "clammy" aspect of "fever the excessive ripeness associated with tropical climates, intrude into the poem, these elements, less prominent than in keats's earlier poetry, are counterbalanced by the dry, crisp autumnal air of rural England. 1 In presenting the particularly English elements of this environment, keats was also influenced by contemporary poet and essayist leigh Hunt, who had recently written of the arrival of autumn with its "migration of birds "finished harvest "cyder.
In "to autumn as a result of golf this process, the "rhythms" of the harvesting "artist-goddess" "permeate the whole world until all visual, tactile, and kinetic presence is transubstantiated into Apollonian music for the ear the sounds of the poem itself. essay, jerome McGann argued that while the poem was indirectly influenced by historical events, keats had deliberately ignored the political landscape of 1819. 28 countering this view, Andrew Bennett, nicholas roe and others focused on what they believed were political allusions actually present in the poem, roe arguing for a direct connection to the peterloo massacre of 1819. 29 Later, paul Fry argued against McGann's stance when he pointed out, "It scarcely seems pertinent to say that 'to autumn' is therefore an evasion of social violence when it is so clearly an encounter with death itself. It is not a politically encoded escape from history reflecting the coerced betrayal. Of its author's radicalism. McGann thinks to rescue keats from the imputation of political naïveté by saying that he was a radical browbeaten into quietism".
24 Also, noted by both Bate and Jennifer Wagner, the structure of writings the verse reinforces the sense of something to come; the placing of the couplet before the end of each stanza creates a feeling of suspension, highlighting the theme of continuation. 13 Others, like harold Bloom, have emphasized the "exhausted landscape the completion, the finality of death, although "Winter descends here as a man might hope to die, with a natural sweetness". If death in itself is final, here it comes with a lightness, a softness, also pointing to "an acceptance of process beyond the possibility of grief." 25 The progress of growth is no longer necessary; maturation is complete, and life and death are in harmony. The rich description of the cycle of the seasons enables the reader to feel a belonging "to something larger than the self as James o'rourke expresses it, but the cycle comes to an end each year, analogous to the ending of single life. O'rourke suggests that something of a fear of that ending is subtly implied at the end of the poem, 26 although, unlike the other great odes, in this poem the person of the poet is entirely submerged, 23 so there is at most a faint. According to helen Vendler, "to autumn" may be essay seen as an allegory of artistic creation. As the farmer processes the fruits of the soil into what sustains the human body, so the artist processes the experience of life into a symbolic structure that may sustain the human spirit. This process involves an element of self-sacrifice by the artist, analogous to the living grain's being sacrificed for human consumption.
16 Scholars have noted a number of literary influences on "to autumn from Virgil 's georgics, 17 to Edmund Spenser 's "Mutability cantos 18 to the language of Thomas Chatterton, 19 to samuel taylor Coleridge 's " Frost at Midnight 20 to an essay. 21 "to autumn" is thematically connected to other odes that keats wrote in 1819. For example, in his "Ode to melancholy" a major theme is the acceptance of the process of life. When this theme appears later in "to autumn 22 however, it is with a difference. This time the figure of the poet disappears, and there is no exhortation of an imaginary reader. There are no open conflicts, and "dramatic debate, protest, and qualification are absent". 23 In process there is a harmony between the finality of death and hints of renewal of life in the cycle of the seasons, paralleled by the renewal of a single day. 24 Critics have tended to emphasize different aspects of the process. Some have focused on renewal; Walter Jackson Bate points to the theme of each stanza including "its contrary" idea, here death implying, though only indirectly, the renewal of life.
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13 The progression through the day is revealed in actions that position are all suggestive of the drowsiness of afternoon: the harvested grain is being winnowed, the harvester essay is asleep or returning home, the last drops issue from the cider press. 10 The last stanza contrasts Autumn's sounds with those of Spring. The sounds that are presented are not only those of Autumn but essentially the gentle sounds of the evening. Gnats wail and lambs bleat in the dusk. As night approaches within the final moments of the song, death is slowly approaching alongside the end of the year. The full-grown lambs, like the grapes, gourds and hazel nuts, will be harvested for the winter. The twittering swallows gather for departure, leaving the fields bare.
The whistling red-breast and the chirping cricket are the common sounds of winter. The references to Spring, the growing lambs and the migrating swallows remind the reader that the seasons are a cycle, widening the scope of this stanza from a single season to life in general. 14 Of all of keats's poems, "to autumn with its catalogue of concrete images, 15 most closely describes a paradise as realized on earth while also focusing on archetypal symbols connected with the season. Within the poem, autumn represents growth, maturation and finally an approaching death. There is a fulfilling union between the ideal and the real.
Ay, where are they? Think not of them, thou hast thy music too, while barred clouds bloom the soft-dying day, and touch the stubble-plains with rosy hue; Then in a wailful choir the small gnats mourn Among the river sallows, borne aloft Or sinking as the light wind lives. "to autumn" describes, in its three stanzas, three different aspects of the season: its fruitfulness, its labour and its ultimate decline. Through the stanzas there is a progression from early autumn to mid autumn and then to the heralding of winter. Parallel to this, the poem depicts the day turning from morning to afternoon and into dusk. These progressions are joined with a shift from the tactile sense to that of sight and then of sound, creating a three-part symmetry which is not present in keats's other odes.
10 As the poem progresses, autumn is represented metaphorically as one who conspires, who ripens fruit, who harvests, who makes music. The first stanza of the poem represents Autumn as involved with the promotion of natural processes, growth and ultimate maturation, two forces in opposition in nature, but together creating the impression that the season will not end. 11 In this stanza the fruits are still ripening and the buds still opening in the warm weather. Stuart Sperry says that keats emphasises the tactile sense here, suggested by the imagery of growth and gentle motion: swelling, bending and plumping. 10 Harvested field, hampshire In the second stanza autumn is personified as a harvester, 12 to be seen by the viewer in various guises performing labouring tasks essential to the provision of food for the coming year. There is a lack of definitive action, all motion being gentle. Autumn is not depicted as actually harvesting but as seated, resting or watching. 11 In lines 1415 the personification of Autumn is as an exhausted labourer. Near the end of the stanza, the steadiness of the gleaner in lines 1920 again emphasises a motionlessness within the poem.
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8 The poem was revised and included in keats's 1820 collection of poetry titled Lamia, isabella, the eve. Agnes, and Other poems. Although the publishers taylor and Hessey feared the kind of bad reviews that had plagued keats's 1818 edition of Endymion, they were willing to publish the collection after the removal of any potentially controversial poems to ensure that there would be no politically motivated first reviews. 9 Manuscript copy of "to autumn" page 1 Manuscript copy of "to autumn" page 2 season of mists and mellow fruitfulness Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun Conspiring with him how to load and bless With fruit the vines that round the thatch-eves run;. Who hath not seen thee oft amid proposal thy store? Sometimes whoever seeks abroad may find Thee sitting careless on a granary floor, Thy hair soft-lifted by the winnowing wind; Or on a half-reap'd furrow sound asleep, Drows'd with the fume of poppies, while thy hook spares the next swath and all its twined flowers. Where are the songs of Spring?
3 keats's declining health and personal responsibilities also raised obstacles to his continuing poetic efforts. 5 On 19 September 1819, keats walked near Winchester along the river Itchen. In a letter to his friend John Hamilton reynolds written on 21 September, keats described the impression the scene had made upon him and its influence on the composition of "to autumn 2 "How beautiful the season is now how fine the air. A temperate sharpness about. I never lik'd stubble fields so much as now. Somehow a stubble plain looks warm in the same way that some pictures look warm this struck me so much in my sunday's walk that I composed upon." 6 Not everything on keats's mind at the time was bright; the poet knew in September. Thus, in the letter that he wrote to reynolds, keats also included a note saying that he abandoned his long poem. 7 keats did not send "to autumn" to reynolds, but did include the poem within a letter to richard woodhouse, keats's publisher and friend, and dated it on the same day.
" Ode on Melancholy " Ode to a nightingale and " Ode to Psyche ". After the month of may, he began to pursue other forms of poetry, including the verse tragedy Otho the Great in collaboration with friend and roommate Charles Brown, the second half of Lamia, and a return to his unfinished epic Hyperion. 3 His efforts from spring until autumn were dedicated completely to a career in poetry, alternating between writing long and short poems, and setting himself a goal to compose more than fifty lines of verse each day. In his free time he also read works as varied as Robert Burton 's Anatomy of Melancholy, thomas Chatterton 's poetry, and leigh Hunt 's essays. 4 Although keats managed to write many poems in 1819, he was suffering from a multitude of financial troubles throughout the year, including concerns over his brother, george, who, after emigrating to America, was badly in need of money. Despite these distractions, on 19 September 1819 he found time to write "to autumn". The poem marks the final moment of his career as a poet. No longer able to afford to devote his time to the composition of poems, he began working on more lucrative projects.
The work marks the end of his poetic career, as he needed to earn money and could with no longer devote himself to the lifestyle of a poet. A little over a year following the publication of "to autumn keats died. The poem has three eleven-line stanzas which describe a progression through the season, from the late maturation of the crops to the harvest and to the last days of autumn when winter is nearing. The imagery is richly achieved through the personification of Autumn, and the description of its bounty, its sights and sounds. It has parallels in the work of English landscape artists, 1 with keats himself describing the fields of stubble that he saw on his walk as being like that in a painting. 2, the work has been interpreted as a meditation on death; as an allegory of artistic creation; as keats's response to the. Peterloo massacre, which took place in the same year; and as an expression of nationalist sentiment. One of the most anthologised, english lyric poems, "to autumn" has been regarded by critics as one of the most perfect short poems in the English language.
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Illustration for "to autumn" by william James neatby, from. A day with keats, 1899 to autumn " is a poem by English, romantic poet, john keats ( 23 February 1821). The work was composed on 19 September 1819 and published in 1820 in a volume of keats's poetry that included. Lamia and, the eve. "to autumn" is the final work in a group of poems known. Although personal problems left him little time to devote resumes to poetry in 1819, he composed "to autumn" after a walk near. Winchester one autumnal evening.