But is this the only reason why people seek status? 2.2 Signaling status, according to Wright (1994) people are always looking for achieving high status in society. But, how do people reach this coveted desire? De botton (2004) stated that people could generate high status due to their importance, achievement and income. This is also emphasized in the study of Griskevicius, tybur and Van den Bergh (2010). They stated that high status could be achieved through either dominance or prestige (Griskevicius., 2010).
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But what is status precisely? According to de botton (2004 status is known as one's position in the world. Hereby, the world refers to one's legal or professional standing within a group (e.g. Solely, this is a more narrow sense of status since in a broader sense it means one's value and importance in the eyes of the world (de botton, 2004). 2.1 biological evidence for the importance of status. A range of medical and biological evidence testifies that status induces something real to happen in the human body and brain (Truyts, 2010). For example, long. (1982) found in their study that test persons show a higher heart rate and blood pressure when confronted with an experimenter who bears signs of a high status such as a name tag, suit or formal language (Truyts, 2010). But also evolution-based theories suggest that the desire to be perceived as wealthy, attractive and of high status may be built into our genes (Buss, all 2005). So part of the desire for status is defined by our genes and this partly suggests that we enjoy status for the sake of status itself (Truyts, 2010).
Pierre bourdieu (1979) pointed social distinction as well as status as a crucial dynamic of the social life. It is known, that in traditional and mostly ancient societies, status was hard to acquire. But it was also hard to lose status (de botton, 2004). For example, someone could not stop with being a lord, due to the fact that it is a title that has been given to someone. What mattered was the identity at the stage of birth, because in that time people did not care about owl one's achievement (de botton, 2004). Currently, status rarely depends on someone's identity. Instead it depends on someone's performance (de botton, 2004).
Chapter 2 and 3 cover respectively the dependent variable, need for status, and the independent variable, greed. The last chapter describes the conclusions, discussion and recommendations concerning this research. After each chapter, a short conclusion is given for recapitulation and clarification. Distinction and status are amongst others the stronger motivations of human behavior (Truyts, 2010). The importance of distinction as a fundamental biography dynamic was underlined by parts darwin (1871). He introduced sexual selection as a selection tool. He concluded that in order to spread the population, people not only need to survive in their natural and social environment but they also need to be a more attractive partner than their same sex competitors (Truyts, 2010). This is also emphasized in more recent research, for example in sociology.
In none of these studies, greed is linked to status. In my opinion status is a missing variable in the concept, which potentially could be the underlying motive for people to keep buying material goods. This makes this thesis academically relevant due to the fact that it may contribute to the further understanding of greed and the impact it potentially has on consumer behavior. 1.6 Managerial relevance, this thesis attempts to contribute to the further understanding of greed. With this obtained knowledge, it is possible to counteract unwanted developments caused by greed, such as credit crunches or civil wars. It could also raise concern and put this subject on the agenda, in order to be able to protect consumers in the future. 1.7 Thesis structure, in chapter 1, the research topic is introduced and explained. The problem definition, conceptual model and research questions are defined as well.
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So, apparently people continuously compare their possessions with others (Wachtel, 2003; Frank, 1999). This could be emphasized with the findings of duesenberry (1949). He concluded that a concern for status causes people to engage in imitating the consumption standard of those above them in the income hierarchy. But why is status important for people? And what kind of effects does it have on greed? In hopes of finding, the problem basketball definition is stated as follows: What is the effect of -need for status- on greed?
In order to answer the problem definition three research questions have been boston formulated: What is greed? Will status influence greed? 1.4 Conceptual model, after the problem definition and the research questions the following conceptual model has been defined: Greed, need for Status, need for Status (now called status) One's position in the world (de botton, 2004). Greed a selfish and excessive desire to acquire or possess more than one needs. There have been several studies about The seven deadly sins, but only a few about greed (Frank, 2001; Solomon, 1999; Wenzel, 1968; Wachtel, 2003). However, there are studies about related topics such as conspicuous consumption, money, materialism and self-interest (Arrow dasgupta, 2009; de botton, 2004; Khan, 2004; Krähmer, 2006; Frank, 1999; Rege, 2006; Richins, 1994; Rucker galinsky, 2009; Veblen, 1899).
1.2 Problem statement, despite the fact that unwanted situations like credit crunches and wars re-appear, relatively little time is devoted to greed in academic research. Wachtel's psychoanalytic research (2003) is one of the few clues within the subject. Though, his research is mainly focused on the link between greed, material wealth and money. However, greed is also viewed in other respects. For instance, frank (1999) concluded that "mutual influence" is another important dimension in the process of greed as well.
Mutual influence means that our choices, purchases and feelings are influenced by neighbors and family (Frank, 1999). In order to explain this concept, consider the perception of what "looks right" in clothing. Simply by living in the society, people seem to have an automatic sense about how wide a jacket should. But when fashion changes over time, people's perception changes as well (Frank, 1999). Wachtel (2003) made a similar comparison. He said that the envy towards the bigger boat is not reduced by increasing the average size of the vessels. For when all boats get larger, the average person's assets still feels like "just a boat".
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As ultimately humans and not these sins are responsible for causing credit crunches and wars. According to wenzel (1968 greed roles arises due to the nature of earth. He stated that the earth is cold and dry and therefore people who lack heat and humidity are exceedingly greedy. Furthermore, when we take a look at Wachtel's theory (2003 greed is known as a form of self-deception. Here self-deception is a false consciousness in which what really matters is suppressed by a single-minded focus on material wealth (Wachtel, 2003). He also concluded that these days greed is stated as a form of self-interest (Wachtel, 2003). For further understanding, it is necessary to define the many concepts of greed. The following definition is therefore utilized throughout this thesis: greed is a selfish and excessive desire to acquire or possess more than one needs.
1.1 Introduction of the topic, a recent study concluded that The sins are still encountered in our daily lives, despite their existence for all this time (Frank, 2001). This because they are so deeply rooted in our human nature, that not only they are almost completely unavoidable but people can never seem to limit themselves (Frank, 2001). For example, pressing the snooze button once or twice in the morning before path dragging oneself out of bed? Or taking a long shower without consideration for your family members? These are only harmless examples, but sins can also cause more substantial consequences. Lately, greed has been a central subject in the economical news. Amongst others parliamentarians, journalists and prominent business men have been presenting this sin as one of the main causes for the current credit crunch (Bernasek, 2010; Trouw: Economics Department, 2009; Staps, 2008). Furthermore, de soysa (2002) even claims that greed is the primary motivating factor behind civil wars. The main question that intrigues me is: why are people greedy?
deadly sins. The seven deadly sins have provided gossip, amusement and plots for nearly fifteen centuries (Solomon, 1999). The seven deadly sins, also known as the capital Vices or Cardinal Sins, have always been popular. However, the dubious "deadly" have caused many speculations (Solomon, 1999:.7 preface). Pope Gregory the first instituted the classic certification. His list of seven was confirmed and later modified by saint Thomas of Aquinas. The list survived several centuries and now consists of the following seven Sins: Wrath, Greed, Sloth, Pride, lust, Envy and Gluttony (Solomon, 1999.2).
For instance, competitors are individuals who are mainly focused on maximizing their own outcome relative to others. Therefore they always prefer outcomes that are superior to those in their environment. Materialism is defined as the importance a consumer attached to worldly possessions. However, it could also be a competitive striving to have more than others. Materialistic individuals therefore have a desire for other's possessions, objects, experiences or persons and resent those who own the desired possessions. The desire for money is also relative since monetary value is inherently invaluable. People do not have a scale to sense what essays amount is "desirable" and what is "undesirable". Therefore, people rely on external reference (e.g.
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Print, reference this, published: 23rd March, 2015, this literature study focuses on the link between greed and need for status. After research, it can be concluded that need for status is a relative concept. Since people only feel fortunate when they have as much or a little more than the people in their environment. Therefore, seeing what others have is one of the most powerful influences that stirs greater and greater desires. People may not just want what others have but more than others have. In order to provide the link between need for status and greed, it was necessary to find the relative factors in greed. In this study it is assumed that three facets contribute greed namely, self-interest, materialism and desire paper for money. All these facets appear to have relative parts.