Laing ; Set Decoration: Michael seirton Won Academy Award for Best Cinematography billy williams and Ronnie taylor Won Academy Award for Best makeup Tom Smith Nominated Academy Award for Best Costume design John Mollo and Bhanu Athaiya won Academy Award for Best Film Editing John. British board of Film Classification. Retrieved b c d e "Gandhi (1982) - box Office data, dvd and Blu-ray sales, movie news, cast and Crew Information". Retrieved permanent dead link briley, john (1982). a b Briley, john (1983). New York: Grove press. 54, represents Gandhi's final victory in south Africa by depicting General Smuts as telling Gandhi, "a royal Commission to 'investigate' the new legislation.
Mohandas Karamchand mahatma )
51 Grenier's book later became an inspiration for. Singh 's book gandhi: Behind the mask of divinity. Parts of the book also discuss the film negatively. Singh, a long term critic of Gandhi, also went on to co-author Gandhi Under Cross Examination with Timothy watson. In the dvd edition of the 1998 film Jinnah, the director's commentary of the film makes mention of the 1982 film. In the commentary, both Sir Christopher lee, who portrayed the older Muhammed Ali jinnah, and envelopes director Jamil Dehlavi criticised the film Gandhi for its portrayal of Jinnah, arguing it to be demonising and historically inaccurate. Review aggregator website rotten Tomatoes retrospectively collected 54 reviews and judged 85 of them to be positive, with an average rating of 8/10. The website's critical consensus reads: "Director Richard Attenborough is typically sympathetic and sure-handed, but it's Ben Kingsley's magnetic performance that acts as the linchpin for this sprawling, lengthy biopic." 52 Metacritic gave the film a score of 79 out of 100 based on 16 critical. 53 CinemaScore reported that audiences gave the film a rare "A" grade. 54 In 2010, the Independent Film television Alliance selected the film as one of the 30 Most Significant Independent Films of the last 30 years 55 Awards and nominations edit Award Category recipients and nominees Result 55th Academy Awards 56 Academy Award for Best Picture.
25 According to essay the museum of Broadcast Communications there was "a cycle of film and television productions which emerged during the first half of the 1980s, which seemed to indicate Britain's growing preoccupation with India, empire and a particular aspect of British cultural history". 49 In addition to gandhi, this cycle also included heat and Dust (1983 Octopussy (1983 The jewel in the Crown (1984 The far pavilions (1984) and a passage to India (1984). Patrick French negatively reviewed the film, writing in The telegraph : "An important origin of one myth about Gandhi was Richard Attenboroughs 1982 film. Take the episode when the newly arrived Gandhi is ejected from a first-class railway carriage at pietermaritzburg after a white passenger objects to sharing space with a coolie (an Indian indentured labourer). In fact, gandhi's demand to be allowed to travel first-class was accepted by the railway company. Rather than marking the start of a campaign against racial oppression, as legend has it, this episode was the start of a campaign to extend racial segregation in south Africa. Gandhi was adamant that respectable Indians should not be obliged to use the same facilities as raw Kaffirs. He petitioned the authorities in the port city of Durban, where he practised law, to end the indignity of making Indians use the same entrance to the post office as blacks, and counted it a victory when three doors were introduced: one for Europeans, one. He also alleged the Indian government admitted to financing about a third of the film's budget.
Among the best few who took a more negative view of the film, historian Lawrence james called it "pure hagiography" 44 while anthropologist Akhil Gupta said it "suffers from tepid direction and a superficial and misleading interpretation of history." 45 The film was also criticised. 42 46 In Time, richard Schickel wrote that in portraying Gandhi's "spiritual presence. Kingsley is nothing short of astonishing." 35 :97 A "singular virtue" of the film is that "its title figure is also a character in the usual dramatic sense of the term." Schickel viewed Attenborough's directorial style as having "a conventional handsomeness that is more predictable. 48 In Newsweek, jack Kroll stated that "There are very few movies that absolutely must be seen. Sir Richard Attenborough's Gandhi is one of them." 25 The movie "deals with a subject of great importance. With a mixture of high intelligence and immediate emotional impact. Gives what is possibly the most astonishing biographical performance in screen history." Kroll stated that the screenplay's "least persuasive characters are gandhi's Western allies and acolytes" such as an English cleric and an American journalist, but that "Attenborough's 'old-fashioned' style is exactly right for the. At a time of deep political unrest, economic dislocation and nuclear anxiety, seeing "Gandhi" is an experience that will change many minds and hearts.
It was the year's third highest-grossing film outside of North America. 2 In the United Kingdom, the film grossed.3 million 32 (38,955,367). 33 It was the year's highest-grossing film in the United Kingdom, and is one of the top ten highest-grossing British independent films of all time. 32 In India, it was one of the highest-grossing films of all-time (and the highest for a foreign film) during the time of its release by earning over 100 crore or 1 billion rupees. At today's exchange rate, that amounts to us14.9 million, still making it one of the highest-grossing imported films in the country. It was shown tax free in Bombay (known as Mumbai since 1995) and Delhi. 34 Critical response edit reviews were broadly positive not only domestically (in India) but also internationally. 34 The film was discussed or reviewed in Newsweek, 25 Time, 35 the washington Post, 36 37 The public Historian, 38 Cross Currents, 39 The journal of Asian Studies, 40 Film quarterly, 41 The Progressive, 42 The Christian Century 42 and elsewhere. 43 Ben Kingsley's performance was especially praised.
Mahatma, gandhi - anti-war Activist, biography
Raju at that time, on the mom back of which resume the remainder of the funding was finally raised. 21 22 Finally in 1980 Attenborough was able to secure the remainder of the funding needed to make the film. Screenwriter John Briley had introduced him to jake eberts, the chief executive at the new Goldcrest production company that raised approximately two-thirds of the film's budget. Shooting began on 26 november 1980 and ended on Some scenes were shot near koilwar Bridge, in Bihar. 23 over 300,000 extras were used in the funeral scene, the most for any film according to guinness World Records. 24 Casting edit during pre-production, there was much speculation as to who would play the role of Gandhi. 25 26 The choice was Ben Kingsley, who is partly of Indian heritage (his father was Gujarati and his birth name is Krishna Bhanji).
27 Release and reception edit gandhi premiered in New Delhi, india on 30 november 1982. Two days later, on 2 December, it had a royal Premiere at the Odeon leicester Square in London 28 in the presence of Prince Charles and Princess diana. 29 30 The film had a limited release in the us on 8 December 1982, followed by a wider release in January 1983. 2 Box office edit In North America, gandhi grossed a total of us 52,767,889. 2 It became the 12th highest-grossing film of 1982 there. 31 Outside of North America, the film grossed US75 million in the rest of the world.
However, pascal died in 1954 before preparations were completed. 16 In 1962 Attenborough was contacted by motilal Kothari, an Indian-born civil servant working with the Indian High Commission in London and a devout follower of Gandhi. Kothari insisted that Attenborough meet him to discuss a film about Gandhi. 17 18 Attenborough agreed, after reading louis Fischer 's biography of Gandhi and spent the next 18 years attempting to get the film made. He was able to meet prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru and his daughter Indira gandhi through a connection with Lord louis mountbatten, the last Viceroy of India.
Nehru approved of the film and promised to help support its production, but his death in 1964 was one of the film's many setbacks. Attenborough would dedicate the film to the memory of Kothari, mountbatten, and Nehru. David lean and Sam Spiegel had planned to make a film about Gandhi after completing The Bridge on the river Kwai, reportedly with Alec guinness as Gandhi. Ultimately, the project was abandoned in favour of Lawrence of Arabia (1962). 19 Attenborough reluctantly approached lean with his own Gandhi project in the late 1960s, and lean agreed to direct the film and offered Attenborough the lead role. Instead lean began filming ryan's daughter, during which time motilai kothari had died and the project fell apart. 20 Attenborough again attempted to resurrect the project in 1976 with backing from Warner Brothers. Then prime minister Indira gandhi declared a state of emergency in India and shooting would be impossible. Co-producer Rani dube persuaded prime minister Indira gandhi to provide the first 10 million from the national Film development Corporation of India, chaired.
Mahatma, gandhi - vicipaedia
Horrified, gandhi declares a hunger strike, saying he will not eat until the fighting stops. 13 The fighting does stop eventually. Gandhi spends his last days trying to thesis bring about peace between both nations. He thereby angers many dissidents on both sides, one of whom (Godse) is paper involved in a conspiracy to assassinate him. 14 Gandhi is cremated and his ashes are scattered on the holy ganga. 15 As this happens, viewers hear Gandhi in another voiceover from earlier in the film. Production edit This film had been Richard Attenborough's dream project, although two previous attempts at filming had failed. In 1952, gabriel Pascal secured an agreement with the Prime minister of India ( Pandit Nehru ) to produce a film of Gandhi's life.
He also travels to london for a conference analysis concerning Britain's possible departure from India; this, however, proves fruitless. After the second World War, 10 Britain finally grants Indian independence. 11 Indians celebrate this victory, but their troubles are far from over. The country is subsequently divided by religion. It is decided that the northwest area and the eastern part of India (current-day bangladesh both places where muslims are in the majority, will become a new country called pakistan. It is hoped that by encouraging the muslims to live in a separate country, violence will abate. Gandhi is opposed to the idea, and is even willing to allow Muhammad Ali jinnah to become the first prime minister of India, 12 but the partition of India is carried out nevertheless. Religious tensions between Hindus and Muslims erupt into nationwide violence.
rights for Indians. 9 In 1915, as a result of his victory in south Africa, gandhi is invited back to India, where he is now considered something of a national hero. He is urged to take up the fight for India's independence, ( Swaraj, quit India ) from the British Empire. Gandhi agrees, and mounts a nonviolent non-cooperation campaign of unprecedented scale, coordinating millions of Indians nationwide. There are some setbacks, such as violence against the protesters and Gandhi's occasional imprisonment. The 1919 Jallianwala bagh massacre is also depicted in the film. Nevertheless, the campaign generates great attention, and Britain faces intense public pressure. In 1930, gandhi protests against the British-imposed salt tax via the highly symbolic Salt March.
The film was screened retrospectively on the. Opening Film at the, independence day film Festival jointly presented by the Indian Directorate of Film Festivals and Ministry of Defence, commemorating 70th Indian Independence day. 4 5 The screenplay of Gandhi is available as a published book. 6 7 Contents On, 7 :1821 after an evening gps prayer, an elderly gandhi is helped out for his evening walk to meet a large number of greeters and admirers. One visitor, nathuram Godse, shoots him point blank in the chest. Gandhi exclaims, "Oh, god! and then falls dead. In 1893, the 23-year-old Gandhi is thrown off a south African train for being an Indian sitting in a first-class compartment despite having a first-class ticket.
SparkNotes: Mohandas, gandhi : The making of the
Gandhi is a 1982 epic historical drama film based on the life. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the leader of India's non-violent, non-cooperative independence movement against the United Kingdom's rule of the country during the 20th century. The film, a british-Indian co-production, was written by, john Briley and produced and directed by, richard Attenborough. Ben Kingsley in the title role. The film covers Gandhi's life from a defining moment in 1893, as he is thrown off a south African train for being in a whites -only compartment, and concludes with his assassination and funeral in 1948. Hindu, gandhi's embracing of other faiths, particularly Christianity and Islam, is also depicted. Gandhi was released book in India on 30 november 1982, in the United Kingdom on 3 December, and in the United States on 10 December. 3, it was nominated for, academy Awards in eleven categories, winning eight, including. Best Picture and, best Director for Attenborough, best Actor for Ben Kingsley, and, best Screenplay written Directly for the Screen for Briley.