10 must read autobiographies

10 must read autobiographies

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The stone wall surrounding it had four entrances and measured 4 metres (13 ft) tall and.6 metres (15 ft) thick before it was dismantled in 1943. 4 39 The kowloon Walled City in 1989. Kowloon Walled City The city's former location within Hong Kong Construction surged dramatically during the 1960s and 1970s, until the formerly low-rise city consisted almost entirely of buildings with 10 storeys or more (with the notable exception of the yamen in its centre). 11 15 However, due to the kai tak airport's position 800 metres (0.50 mi) south of the city, buildings did not exceed 14 storeys. 40 The two-storey sai tau tsuen settlement bordered the walled City to the south and west until it was cleared in 1985 and replaced with Carpenter road Park. 41 42 The city's dozens of alleyways were often only 12 m (3.36.6 ft) wide, and had poor lighting and drainage.

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The foundations of the city's wall paper and East Gate were also discovered. 22 The hong Kong government preserved the south Gate remnants next to a square in front of the yamen. 36 The yamen building is made up of three halls. Originally the middle hall served the Assistant Magistrate of Kowloon's administrative office, and the rear block was his residence. After the government officials left the area in 1899, it was used for several other purposes, including an old people's home, a refuge for widows and orphans, a school, and a clinic. It was restored in 1996 and is now found near the centre of the park. 37 It contains a photo gallery of the walled City, and two cannon dating back to 1802 sit at the sides of its entrance. 25 layout and architecture edit model of Kowloon Walled City located at the entrance of Kowloon Walled City park The walled City was located in what became known as the kowloon City area of Kowloon. In spite of its transformation from a fort into an urban enclave, the walled City retained the same basic layout. The original fort was built on a slope 38 and consisted of.6-hectare (0.010 sq mi) plot measuring about 210 by 120 metres (690 by 390 ft).

The park's paths and pavilions are named after streets and buildings in the walled City. 25 Artefacts from the walled City, such as five inscribed stones and three old wells, are also on display in the park. 23 The park was designed by the Architectural Services Department, which won a "prestigious award" from the central Society of Horticulture of Germany for the redevelopment. 26 The remnants of the city's south Gate and its entrance plaques Components of the park include: The eight Floral Walks, each named after a different plant or flower 27 The Chess Garden, featuring four 3-by-5-metre (9.8.4 ft) Chinese chessboards 28 The garden. Declared monuments edit The front of the restored yamen building with one of the original cannons Children of early 20th century kowloon Walled City residents playing on the yamen cannons The Antiquities and Monuments Office conducted archaeological examinations as the walled City was being demolished. 34 Among them were the walled City's yamen and remnants of its south Gate, which were officially designated declared monuments of Hong Kong on 35 The south Gate had originally served essay as the walled City's main entrance. Along with its foundation, other remains included two stone plaques inscribed with "South Gate" and "Kowloon Walled City" from the south Gate and a flagstone path that had led up.

10 must read autobiographies

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19 20 After four months of planning, 21 demolition of the walled City began on 13 and concluded in April 1994. Construction work on Kowloon Walled City park started the following month. 22 Current status as park edit for details on the park itself, see kowloon Walled City park. The lung Nam pavilion located in the southwest corner of the park The area where the walled City once stood is now Kowloon Walled City park, adjacent to carpenter road Park. 23 The 31,000 m2 (330,000 sq ft) park was completed in August 1995 and handed over to the Urban council. It was opened officially by governor Chris Patten a few months later on 22 December. 24 Construction of the park cost a total of HK76 million. 22 The park's design is modelled on jiangnan gardens of the early qing Dynasty. It is divided into eight landscape features, 22 with the fully restored yamen as its centrepiece.

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10 must read autobiographies

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13 Although the walled City was for many years a hotbed of criminal activity, most residents were not involved in any crime and lived peacefully within its walls. Numerous small factories and businesses helpers thrived inside the walled City, and some residents formed groups to organise and improve daily life there. 14 An attempt by the government in 1963 to demolish some shacks in a corner of the city gave rise to an "anti-demolition committee" that served as the basis for a kaifong association. Charities, religious societies, and other welfare groups were gradually introduced to the city. While medical clinics and schools went unregulated, the hong Kong government did provide some services, such as water supply and mail delivery. 3 eviction and demolition edit An alley in the city over time, both the British and the Chinese governments found the city to be increasingly intolerable despite a reduction in the reported crime rate.

1 The quality of life in the city—sanitary conditions in particular—remained far behind the rest of Hong Kong. The sino-British joint Declaration in 1984 laid the groundwork for the city's demolition. 3 The mutual decision by the two governments to tear down the walled City was announced on 15 On, following the announcement that the walled City would be converted to a park, the secretary for District Administration formally requested the Urban council agree to take. Owing to the presence of numerous other green spaces in the area, the Urban Services Department doubted the need for "yet another park" from a planning and operations point of view, but the council agreed nonetheless to accept the government's proposal on the condition that. 16 17 The government distributed some hk2.7 billion (US350 million) in compensation to the estimated 33,000 residents and businesses in a plan devised by a special committee of the hong Kong housing Authority. 18 Some residents were not satisfied with the compensation and were forcibly evicted between november 1991 and July 1992.

8 9 With no government enforcement from the Chinese or the British aside from a few raids by the hong Kong Police, the walled City became a haven for crime and drugs. It was only during a 1959 trial for a murder that occurred within the walled City that the hong Kong government was ruled to have jurisdiction there. By this time, however, the walled City was virtually ruled by the organised crime syndicates known as triads. 3 Beginning in the 1950s, triad groups such as the 14K and Sun yee on gained a stranglehold on the walled City's countless brothels, gambling parlors, and opium dens. The walled City had become such a haven for criminals that police would venture into it only in large groups. 10 It was not until 197374, when a series of more than 3,500 police raids resulted in over 2,500 arrests and over 1,800 kilograms (4,000 lb) of seized drugs, that the triads' power began to wane.

With public support, particularly from younger residents, the continued raids gradually eroded drug use and violent crime. In 1983, the police commander of Kowloon City district declared the walled City's crime rate to be under control. 3 One of the outer edges in 1991 The city also underwent massive construction during the 1960s, with developers building new modular structures above older ones. The city became extremely densely populated, with over 30,000 people in 300 buildings occupying little more than 7 acres (2.8 ha). As a result, the city reached its maximum size by the late 1970s and early 1980s; a height restriction of 13 to 14 storeys had been imposed on the city due to the flight path of planes heading towards kai tak airport. 11 As well as limiting building height, the proximity of the airport subjected residents to serious noise pollution for the last 20 years of the city's existence. Eight municipal pipes provided water to the entire structure, although more could have come from wells. 12 A few of the streets were illuminated by fluorescent lights, as sunlight rarely reached the lower levels due to the outstanding disregard to air rights within the city. 3 Although the rampant crime of earlier decades diminished in later years, the walled City was still known for its high number of unlicensed doctors and dentists, who could operate there without threat of prosecution.

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It was a very complex place, difficult to night generalise about, a place that seemed frightening but where most people continued to lead normal lives. A place just like the supermarket rest of Hong Kong. — leung Ping-kwan, city of Darkness,. 120 6 The south side of the kowloon Walled City in 1975. The elevation of the buildings begins to reach its maximum height. In January 1950, a fire broke out that destroyed over 2,500 huts, home to nearly 3,500 families and 17,000 total people. 7 The disaster highlighted the need for proper fire prevention in the largely wooden-built squatter areas, complicated by the lack of political ties with the colonial and Chinese governments. 8 The ruins gave new arrivals to the walled City the opportunity to build anew, causing speculation that the fire may have been intentionally set.

10 must read autobiographies

The Protestant church established an old people's home in the old "yamen" (Chinese meaning administrative office) as well as a school and an almshouse in other former offices. Aside from such institutions, however, the walled City became a mere curiosity for British colonials and tourists to visit; it was labelled as "Chinese town" in a 1915 map. In 1933, the hong Kong authorities announced plans to demolish most of the decaying Walled City's buildings, compensating the 436 squatters that lived there with new homes. By 1940 only the yamen, the school and one house remained. During its World War ii occupation of Hong Kong, japan demolished the city's wall and used the stone to expand the nearby kai tak airport. 3 Urban settlement edit An aerial view of the kowloon Walled City and the neighboring sai resume tau tsuen village in 1972 After Japan's surrender in 1945, China announced its intent to reclaim its rights to the walled City. Refugees from mainland China because of the Chinese civil War post 1945 poured in to take advantage of British protection (the walled City was a chinese territory but surrounded by British land and 2,000 squatters occupied the walled City by 1947. After a failed attempt to drive them out in 1948, the British adopted a 'hands-off' policy in most matters concerning the walled City. 3 Here, prostitutes installed themselves on one side of the street while a priest preached and handed out powdered milk to the poor on the other; social workers gave guidance while drug addicts squatted under the stairs getting high; what were children's games centres.

forms the remnants of what was previously lai enjue 's garrison. 1915 map of the hong Kong region with the kowloon Walled City listed as "Chinese town" at the upper right-hand corner The convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory of 1898 handed additional parts of Hong Kong (the new Territories ) to Britain for. China was allowed to continue to keep officials there as long as they did not interfere with the defence of British Hong Kong. The following year, the governor, sir Henry Blake, suspected that the viceroy of Canton was using troops to aid resistance to the new arrangements. On, british forces attacked the walled City, only to find the viceroy's soldiers gone, leaving behind only the mandarin and 150 residents. 3 The qing dynasty ended its rule in 1912, leaving the walled City to the British. Though the British claimed ownership of the walled City, they did little with it over the following few decades.

Kowloon Walled City park opened in December 1995 and occupies the area of summary the former Walled City. Some historical artefacts from the walled City, including its yamen building and remnants of its south Gate, have been preserved there. Contents History edit military outpost edit lung Tsun Stone Bridge and Lung Tsun pavilion (pavilion for Greeting Officials) of Kowloon Walled City in 1898 The history of the walled City can be traced back to the song Dynasty (9601279 when an outpost was set. Little took place for hundreds of years afterward, although 30 guards were stationed there in 1668. 3 A small coastal fort was established around 1810. 4 In 1842, during Qing Emperor daoguang 's reign, hong Kong Island was ceded to Britain by the Treaty of Nanjing. As a result, the qing authorities felt it necessary to improve the fort in order to rule the area and check further British influence.

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Kowloon Walled City was a largely ungoverned, densely populated settlement in, kowloon City in, hong Kong. Originally a, chinese military fort, the walled City became an enclave after the. New Territories were leased to, britain by China in 1898. Its population increased dramatically following the. Japanese occupation of Hong Kong during, world War. By 1990, the walled City contained 50,000 residents 1 2 within its.6-hectare (6.4-acre) borders. From the 1950s to gender the 1970s, it was controlled by local triads and had high rates of prostitution, gambling and drug abuse. In January 1987, the, hong Kong government announced plans to demolish the walled City. After an arduous eviction process, demolition began in March 1993 and was completed in April 1994.

10 must read autobiographies
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