The prehistory of the area that is now the netherlands was largely shaped by the sea and the rivers that constantly shifted the low-lying geography. The oldest human ( neanderthal ) traces were found in higher soils, near maastricht, from what is believed to be about 250,000 years ago. 34 At the end of the Ice Age, the nomadic late Upper Paleolithic Hamburg culture (c. 13.00010.000 BC) hunted reindeer in the area, using spears, but the later Ahrensburg culture (c. 11.2009500 BC) used bow and arrow. From Mesolithic Maglemosian-like tribes (c.
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The dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the low countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà ( the lands over here) for the low countries as opposed to les pays de par delà ( the lands over there) for their. 31 Under Habsburg rule, les pays de par deçà developed in pays d'embas (lands down-here 32 a deictic expression in relation to other Habsburg possessions like hungary and Austria. This was translated as Neder-landen in contemporary dutch official documents. 33 From a regional point of view, niderlant was also the area between the meuse and the lower Rhine in the late middle Ages. The area known as Oberland (High country) was in this deictic context considered to begin approximately at the nearby higher located Cologne. From the mid-sixteenth century on, the "Low countries" and the "Netherlands" lost their original deictic meaning. They were probably the most commonly used names, besides Flanders, another pars pro toto for the low countries, especially in Romance language speaking Europe. The eighty years' war (15681648) divided the low countries into an independent northern Dutch Republic (or Latinised Belgica foederata, "Federated Netherlands the precursor state of the netherlands) and a spanish controlled southern Netherlands (Latinised Belgica regia, "royal Netherlands the precursor state of Belgium). The low countries today is a designation that includes the countries the netherlands, belgium and Luxembourg, although in most Romance languages, the term "Low countries" is used as the name for the netherlands specifically. It is used synonymous with the more neutral and geopolitical term Benelux. History edit main article: History of the netherlands Prehistory (before 800 BC) edit main articles: Paleolithic Europe, neolithic Europe, and Bronze age europe oak figurine found in Willemstad (4500 bce).
28 The region called the low countries (comprising Belgium, the netherlands and Luxembourg ) and the country of the netherlands, have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder (or lage nieder, nether (or low ) and Nedre (in Germanic languages ) and Bas or Inferior resume (in Romance languages ) are in use in places all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, boven, oben, superior or haut. In the case of the low countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea. The geographical location of the upper region, however, changed over time tremendously, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the low countries area. The romans made a distinction between the roman provinces of downstream Germania inferior (nowadays part of Belgium and the netherlands) and upstream Germania superior (nowadays part of Germany). The designation 'low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the low countries. 29 30 But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France.
There is diversity even within languages. This holds also for English, where dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, holland, home to the capital city of Amsterdam ; government headquarters at The hague ; and Europe's largest port Rotterdam. Referring to the netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "England" by people outside the. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, however, that the dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "m" and "m". 24 The region of Holland consists of North and south Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces, formerly a single province, and earlier still, the county of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the duchy of Brabant and the county of Flanders, holland became the most economically and politically important county in the low countries region. The emphasis on Holland during the formation of the dutch Republic, the eighty years' war and the Anglo-dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, which is now considered either incorrect,. Nonetheless, holland is widely used in reference to the netherlands national football team.
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The netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870 and ofw had women's suffrage introduced in 1917. Regarding the lgbt community, it became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001. The netherlands is a founding member of the eu, eurozone, g10, nato, oecd, and wto, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The country is host to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical weapons and five international courts: the permanent court of Arbitration, the International court of Justice, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, the International Criminal court, and the Special Tribunal for Lebanon. The first four are situated in The hague, as is the eu's criminal intelligence agency europol and judicial cooperation agency eurojust and the United Nations Detention Unit. This has led to the city being dubbed "the world's legal capital." 18 The country also ranks second highest in the world's 2016 Press Freedom Index, as published by reporters Without Borders. 19 The netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom.
20 It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2016 according to the imf. In 2017, the un world Happiness Report ranked the netherlands as the sixth-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life. 21 nb oecd better Life Index also ranks the netherlands first in the world for worklife balance. 23 The netherlands has a generous welfare state that provides universal healthcare, public education and infrastructure, as well as a wide range of social benefits. It also ranks joint third highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human development Index, along with Australia. Contents Etymology edit main article: Terminology of the low countries The netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and widely varying names in different languages.
Amsterdam is the country's capital, 12 while The hague holds the seat of the States General, cabinet and Supreme court. 13 The port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe and the world's largest outside Asia. 14 "Netherlands" literally means " lower countries influenced by its low land and flat geography, with only about 50 of its land exceeding 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) above sea level. 15 Most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas ( polders ) have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, amounting to nearly 17 of the country's current land mass.
With a population density of 414 people per km2 510 if water is excluded the netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country. Only bangladesh, south Korea, and taiwan have both a larger population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the netherlands is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, after the United States. 16 17 This is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate as well as its highly developed intensive agriculture. The netherlands was the third country in the world to have elected representatives controlling the government's actions; it has been administered as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy since 1848, organised as a unitary state. The netherlands has a long history of social tolerance and is generally regarded as a liberal country, having legalised abortion, prostitution, and euthanasia, while maintaining a progressive drug policy.
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Western Europe with a population of seventeen million. Together with three island territories in the. Caribbean bonaire, sint Eustatius and, saba it forms a constituent country of the, kingdom of the netherlands. The european portion of the netherlands consists of twelve provinces and borders, germany to the east, belgium to the south, and the. North sea to the northwest, sharing maritime borders in the north sea with Belgium, the. United Kingdom, and Germany. 11 The five largest cities in the netherlands are Amsterdam, rotterdam, the hague, utrecht (forming the randstad megalopolis revelation ) and Eindhoven (leading the Brabantse Stedenrij ).
This article is about the constituent country. For the sovereign state, see. Kingdom of the netherlands. For other uses, see, netherlands (disambiguation). Not to be confused with the region. Holland, or the, low countries. The, netherlands dutch : Nederland nedərlɑnt ( listen often referred to as, holland, is a country located mostly.
programme in governance of Science, technology, and Innovation has been offered by hse issek since 2014. It helps students acquire knowledge about science, technology and innovation management and policy. Below, dirk meissner, Academic Supervisor of the programme, talks about its key features and development. Besides, first and second-year international students describe their reasons for enrolling in the programme and share their experience of studying at hse. Constituent country of the kingdom of the netherlands in Europe.
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