Rolph retorted that he would "pardon the lynchers". Overnight lynching 2627 november edit authorities "expected trouble if and when the missing body was found." 37 After the discovery of Hart's body on Sunday, november 26, word went out immediately throughout northern California. All day sunday and into the evening, radio stations issued inflammatory announcements that a lynching would occur that night. James Park in San Jose. 46 by 9:00.m., a mob estimated by the press to range anywhere from 5,000 to 15,000 men, women, and children were jammed into the park, with an estimated 3,000 vehicles left on streets nearby. Governor James Rolph was in regular telephonic communication with raymond Cato, whom he had appointed to head the california highway patrol. Cato was ensconced in the home of a rolph political ally and neighbor in the mountains west of San Jose with an open phone line to the jail.
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23 On november 21, holmes and Thurmond remained in the jail, and fear of vigilantism led authorities to synthesis announce they would be held "indefinitely." Reportedly, "20 influential friends of the socially prominent Hart family" had formed a committee to "insist on immediate and drastic punishment for. 35 Despite these fears, the pair were indicted on charges of extortion, using the mails for extortion, and conspiracy, and were returned to the san Jose jail the night of november 22. 38 On november 23, california governor James Rolph announced to shocked reporters that he would refuse to dispatch the national guard to protect Thurmond and Holmes. 38 Let the sheriff handle the matter. He can appoint as many deputies as he wants; he has the power. I am not going to call the guard to protect the kidnapers who wilfully killed a fine boy like that. Let the law take its course. — governor James "Sunny jim" Rolph, comments to reporters in Los Angeles 38 Upon payment of 10,000 cash—an astonishing sum in 1933—by the father of Jack holmes, san Francisco attorney vincent Hallinan agreed to represent his son. Thurmond was defended. Oscar Goldstein of Chico. 41 With a volatile mob increasing day and night outside personality the jail on Saturday, november 24, 41 Hallinan called Rolph and asked that he call out the national guard should an effort be made to lynch his client.
35 Workers constructing a pier of the bay bridge reported seeing a body floating in the water during the night of november 22, prompting a search roles by oakland and San Francisco police boats, including the shores of nearby goat Island. 38 Alex Hart announced a us500 (equivalent to 9,500 in 2017) reward on november 24, hoping to "enlist the aid of the public in the search." 41 by that time, the search for the body involved a blimp from Sunnyvale, police boats from oakland and San. 41 The official search for Hart's body ended on november 25. 37 The next day, two duck hunters from Redwood City 42 43 discovered a badly decayed and crab-eaten body approximately.5 miles (0.80 km) south of the bridge. 43 Hart's body was identified by the coroner and Hart's friends and employees later that day, with several personal effects with the body matched to hart's known possessions. Lynching of Thurmond and Holmes edit warning signs edit because of lynch threats, santa Clara county Sheriff Emig moved Thurmond and Holmes to the potrero hill police station in San Francisco for safekeeping soon after their arrest. 16 a san Jose newspaper ran a front-page editorial branding Holmes and Thurmond "human devils" and called for "mob violence." 34 Upon their return to the san Francisco jail from questioning, cries of "lynch them" were heard from the crowd surrounding that jail.
Following cursory examinations in their cells at the santa Clara county jail in San Jose, with a mob outside in the jail courtyard, both men were declared sane. 37 search for the body edit police officers from Santa Clara, san Mateo, and Alameda counties began searching the bay around the bridge, hoping to find paper Hart's body. Trace evidence, including stains on the bridge, "blonde hair on a brick" and other markings convinced authorities the confessors had truthfully described the sequence of events, including dumping Hart. 38 The first physical clues were unearthed on november paper 18. Two 22-pound (10.0 kg) bricks and apparent bloodstains were found at the san Mateo bridge. 23 24 The pillowcase used to mask hart during the car ride to the bridge was discovered, along with Hart's hat, by november 20. 39 The discovery of the hat ended the last hope of the family that Hart would be found alive. 40 A hook-studded apparatus was used to drag the bay, with no success. A weighted dummy was planned to be dropped from the bridge on november 21 in an attempt to see where it would float.
Holmes was arrested in his sro room at the california hotel near the san Jose police station at 3:30.m. 16 According to Thurmond's confession, holmes approached him with the scheme six weeks prior, after he had separated from his family. 34 At. On november 17, holmes signed a confession admitting that he and Thurmond kidnapped Hart and threw him into san Francisco bay. Later, the santa Clara county district Attorney advised the press that, unless corroborated by independent evidence of the crime, confessions by Thurmond and Holmes in which each blamed the other for the crime were not admissible in a court of law. Meanwhile, local newspapers reported that Holmes and Thurmond had met with psychiatrists and would attempt to plead not guilty by reason of insanity. Thurmond claimed he had been "crazy" for more than a year, since his sweetheart married another man, 34 and Holmes planned to repudiate his confession, which his attorney claimed had been "forced from him by third-degree methods 35 including threats to "turn him over.
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That night, hart with took a homework call from a man claiming to be his son's kidnapper who instructed him to take the night train to los Angeles. The authorities staked out the train station and mistakenly arrested a bank teller out for an evening stroll. The next day, a sign was placed in a window of the hart store stating that Alex Hart did not drive. A call was received that night again demanding that Hart drive to deliver the ransom. Hart demanded proof that his son was with the caller.
The caller stated that Brooke hart was being held at a safe location. Because a phone tap had been placed on the hart telephone, the call was traced to a garage in downtown San Jose, but the caller was gone by the time the authorities arrived. Arrests and confessions edit Another ransom demand arrived the following day, again ordering Alex Hart to drive with the ransom. That night, another call was received and the demand that Hart drive was repeated. The sheriff arrested Thomas Harold Thurmond near a pay phone in a parking garage 150 feet (46 m) from the san Jose police station at about. 16 At 3:00.m., Thurmond, after hours of questioning, signed a confession in which he claimed to have bound Brooke hart with wire and tossed him off the san Mateo bridge into san Francisco bay sometime between 7:00 and 7:30 on the night of the kidnapping. 16 34 he identified a recently unemployed salesman, john Holmes, separated from his wife and two children, 34 as his accomplice.
26 The san Jose police, the santa Clara county Sheriffs office, and the. Division of Investigation (the forerunner of the fbi ) were quickly brought into the case. The phone calls were traced to locations in San Francisco. 27 Hart's wallet had already been discovered in San Francisco on the guard rail of a tanker which had been refueling the matson Lines passenger liner ss lurline, and it was assumed the wallet had been tossed from a porthole on the liner. 28 Lurline was stopped and searched in Los Angeles upon arrival on november 11, but nothing was found.
28 Police then advanced an alternative theory: since pier 32, from which Lurline had departed, was close to the sewer outfall, the heavily laden tanker may have dipped below the surface and picked up the wallet from where it had been discharged from the sewer. 28 One of the passengers detained during the three-hour search was Babe ruth, traveling to los Angeles to watch a football game between southern California and Stanford. 28 A "compromise ransom" telegram from Sacramento arrived on november 12, suggesting that US20,000 (equivalent to 378,000 in 2017) would be sufficient. 29 30 However, the family was not contacted again until Monday, november 13, when a letter, postmarked in Sacramento, arrived in the mail at the family department store. 31 It instructed Hart's father, Alex Hart, to have a radio installed in the Studebaker (which already had a radio because the ransom instructions would be broadcast over nbc radio station kpo. 32 The kidnapper also instructed Alex Hart to be ready to drive the Studebaker to deliver the ransom, but Alex Hart had never learned to drive. On tuesday, a second ransom note arrived, this time postmarked in San Francisco. 33 It instructed Alex Hart to place the ransom in a black satchel and drive to los Angeles.
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19 The investigators did not agree on the veracity of the story, which did not agree with the number of kidnappers from the recorded confessions. 20 write Separately, after midnight, a man living in Milpitas spotted an abandoned convertible left with its lights on outside their home; his wife reported that it had been there since. The night of november. 21 The car was confirmed to be hart's by Sheriff Emig and a deputy. 22 Two wood gatherers said they heard cries for help from the bridge near the shore of Alameda on the night of november 9, 23 but they did not find anyone after a search, nor did they hear any shots that night. 24 Ransom demands edit At 9:30 the night of november 9, Aleese hart, the older of Hart's two younger sisters, answered the telephone and was informed by a "soft-spoken man" that Hart had been kidnapped and that instructions for his return would be provided later. 25 At 10:30, what sounded like the same man called and informed the other sister, miriam, that her brother would be returned upon payment of US40,000 (equivalent to 756,000 in 2017). Delivery instructions would be provided the next day.
16 The tide was out and there was only a few feet of water at the base of the bridge, so the kidnappers shot Hart, killing him. 15 16 A few hours later, they placed a telephone call to the hart family demanding 40,000 for Hart's return, with further instructions to follow. Witness accounts edit hart had been kidnapped at the exit of the parking lot behind the family department store. A half-hour later, a mother and daughter on hotline a farm immediately south of Milpitas watched as a dark, long-hooded sedan with three men in it stopped near their barn. 17 A few minutes later, a convertible (presumably the Studebaker President roadster) with three men (two on the running boards and one driving) stopped near the sedan. 17 Their description of the man driving the convertible, slender with light colored hair, matched the description of Hart, as did the Studebaker as his car. Hart was driven away in the larger car. One of the group followed in the Studebaker. 18 The mother did not report the events until the following Monday (november 13 when she was visiting relatives and learned about the kidnapping.
downtown. 14, according to later confessions, two men, john Holmes and Thomas (Harold) Thurmond, had plotted to kidnap Hart. When Hart stopped his car near the exit of the parking lot, Thurmond slipped into the passenger seat and forced Hart to drive, at gunpoint, to what is now. Milpitas, about seven miles north of San Jose. 15 There they abandoned the Studebaker for another waiting car, which had been driven to the rendezvous point by holmes, and the group of three drove to the san Mateo bridge. 15 On the bridge, hart was ordered out of the car, and one of the kidnappers struck him twice on the head from behind with a concrete block until he was unconscious. 16 They then bound his arms with baling wire before dumping him into san Francisco bay.
San Francisco bay on the morning of Sunday, november 26, 1933, word of a lynch mob spread quickly throughout northern California. That evening, a crowd gathered. James Park across from the santa Clara county courthouse. The lynching was broadcast as a 'live' event by a los Angeles radio station. 9, scores of reporters, photographers, and news camera operators, along with an estimated 3,000 to 10,000 men, women, and children, were witness. When newspapers published photos, identifiable faces were deliberately smudged so that they remained anonymous; the following Monday, local newspapers published.2 million type copies, twice the normal daily production. 10 11, hart had worked in his family's department store during much of his youth and was well-known and liked by the local community. After he graduated from. Santa Clara University, his father made him a junior vice president 12 in the store and began grooming him to take over when his father retired.
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For the American journalist, see, brooke hart (journalist). Brooke hart (June 11, 1911 november 9, 1933) was the eldest son of Alexander Hart, the owner of leopold Hart and Son Department Store at the southeast corner of Market and Santa Clara Street in downtown. 1 2, his parts kidnapping and murder were reported throughout the United States, and the lynching 3 of his alleged murderers, Thomas Harold Thurmond and John. Holmes, sparked political debate. This incident is sometimes referred to as "the last lynching in California 4 5 6 though the last California lynching is said to have occurred on January 6, 1947,. Callahan, but the name of the victim has never been released and the event cannot be confirmed in any printed news publications. 7 8, when Hart's body was discovered.