The narrator describes the wallpaper as having "sprawling flamboyant patterns committing every artistic sin". Edelstein argues that given Gilmans distaste for the yellow Press, this can also be seen as a description of tabloid newspapers of the day. 19 In paula. Treichler's article "Escaping the sentence: diagnosis and Discourse in 'The yellow Wallpaper she places her focus on the relationship portrayed in the short story between women and writing. Rather than write about the feminist themes which view the wallpaper as something along the lines of ". The 'pattern' which underlies sexual inequality, the external manifestation of neurasthenia, the narrator's unconscious, the narrator's situation within patriarchy treichler instead explains that the wallpaper can be a symbol to represent discourse and the fact that the narrator is alienated from the world in which.
The yellow Wallpaper : Charlotte perkins Gilman
Other interpretations edit "The solar yellow Wallpaper" is sometimes referred to as an example of Gothic literature for its treatment of madness and powerlessness. 14 Alan ryan, for example, introduced the story by writing: "quite apart from its origins it is one of the finest, and strongest, tales of horror ever written. It may be a ghost story. Worse yet, it may not." 15 pioneering horror author. Lovecraft writes in his essay supernatural Horror in Literature (1927) that The yellow Wall Paper' rises to a classic level in subtly delineating the madness which crawls over a woman dwelling in the hideously papered room where a madwoman was once confined." 16 Helen Lefkowitz. 17 Anglican Archbishop Peter Carnley used the story as a reference and a metaphor for the situation of women in the church in his sermon at the ordination of the first women priests in Australia on in St george's Cathedral, perth. 18 Sari Edelstein has argued that "The yellow Wallpaper" is an allegory for Gilman's hatred of the emerging yellow journalism. Having created The forerunner in november 1909, gilman made it clear she wished the press to be more insightful and not rely upon exaggerated stories and flashy headlines. Gilman was often scandalised in the media and resented the sensationalism of the media. The relationship between the narrator and the wallpaper within the story parallels Gilman's relationship to the press.
In her works Gilman highlights that the harm caused by these types of treatments for woman. "the rest cure" has to do with the way in which her voice is silenced. Paula Treichler explains "In this story diagnosis 'is powerful and database public. It is a male voice that. Imposes controls on the female narrator and dictates how she is to perceive and talk about the world.' diagnosis covertly functions to empower the male physician's voice and disempower the female patient's". 13 The narrator in "The yellow Wallpaper" is not allowed to participate in her own treatment or diagnosis and is completely forced to succumb to everything in which her doctor and in this particular story, her husband, says. The male voice is the one in which forces controls on the female and decides how she is allowed to perceive and speak about the world around her.
In this time period it was thought that "hysteria" (a disease stereotypically more common in women) was a result of too much education. It was understood that women who spent time in college or studying were with over-stimulating their brains and consequently leading themselves into states about of hysteria. In fact, many of the diseases recognized in women were seen as the result of a lack of self-control or self-rule. Different physicians argued that a physician must "assume a tone of authority" and that the idea of a "cured" woman is one who is "subdued, docile, silent, and above all subject to the will and voice of the physician". 12 A hysterical woman is one who craves power and in order for her to be treated for her hysteria, she must submit to her physician whose role is to undermine her desires. Often women were prescribed bed rest as a form of treatment, which was meant to "tame" them and basically keep them imprisoned. Treatments such as this were a way of ridding women of rebelliousness and forcing them to conform to social roles.
11 Lanser creates a relationship between the narrator and the reader. Just like the narrator as a reader, when one comes into contact with a confusing and complicated text, one tries to find one single meaning. "How we were taught to read" as Lanser puts it, is why a reader cannot fully comprehend the text. 11 The patriarchal ideology has kept many scholars from being able to interpret and appreciate stories such as "The yellow Wallpaper." Thanks to feminist criticism, "The yellow Wallpaper" has become a fundamental reading in the standard curriculum. Feminists have made a great contribution to the study of literature but, according to lanser, are falling short because "we acknowledge the participation of women writers and readers in dominant patterns of thought and social practice then perhaps our own patterns must also be deconstructed. Cutter discusses how in many of Charlotte perkins Gilman's works she addresses this "struggle in which a male-dominated medical establishment attempts to silence women." 12 Gilman's works challenge the social construction of women in patriarchal medical discourse by displaying women as "silent, powerless, and passive". At the time in which her works take place, between 18, women were exceedingly defined as lesser than—sickly and weak.
SparkNotes : The yellow Wallpaper : Themes
This is interpreted as a victory over her husband, at the expense of her sanity. Lanser in her article "Feminist Criticism The yellow Wallpaper, and the politics of Color in America" praises contemporary feminism and its role in changing the study and the interpretation of literature. "The yellow Wallpaper" was one of many stories that were lost because of an for ideology that determined the works' content to be disturbing or offensive. Critics such as the editor of the Atlantic Monthly rejected the short story because "he could not forgive himself if he made others as miserable as he made himself." Lanser argues that the same argument of devastation and misery can be said about the work. 11 "The yellow Wallpaper" provided feminists the tools with which to interpret literature in different ways. Lanser says the short story was a "particularly congenial medium for such a re-vision. Because the narrator herself engages in a form of feminist interpretation when she tries to read the paper on her wall".
11 The narrator in the story is trying to find a single meaning in the wallpaper. At first she focuses on contradictory style of the wallpaper: it is "flamboyant" while also "dull "pronounced" yet also "lame" and "uncertain" (p. . She takes into account the patterns and tries to geometrically organize them, but she is further confused. The wallpaper changes colors when it reflects light and emits a distinct odor which Jane cannot recognize (p. . At night the narrator is able to see a woman behind bars within the complicated design of the wallpaper. Lanser argues that Jane was able to find "a space of text on which she can locate whatever self-projection".
After realizing how close she had come to complete mental breakdown, she wrote The yellow Wallpaper with additions and exaggerations to illustrate her own misdiagnosis complaint. She sent a copy to mitchell but never received a response. She added that The yellow Wallpaper was "not intended to drive people crazy, but to save people from being driven crazy, and it worked". Gilman claimed that many years later she learned that Mitchell had changed his treatment methods, but literary historian Julie bates Dock has discredited this. Mitchell continued his methods, and as late as years after "The yellow Wallpaper" was published was interested in creating entire hospitals devoted to the "rest cure" so that his treatments would be more widely accessible.
7 Feminist interpretation edit This story has been interpreted by feminist critics as a condemnation of the male control of the 19th-century medical profession. 8 The narrator's suggestions about her recuperation (that she should work instead of rest, engage with society instead of remaining isolated, attempt to be a mother instead of being separated entirely from her child, etc.) are dismissed out of hand using language that stereotypes her. This interpretation draws on the concept of the " domestic sphere " that women were held in during this period. 9 Feminist critics focus on the degree of triumph at the end of the story. While some claim the narrator slipped into insanity, others see the ending as a woman's assertion of agency in a marriage in which she felt trapped. 10 The emphasis on reading and writing as gendered practices also illustrated the importance of the wallpaper. If the narrator were allowed neither to write in her journal nor to read, she would begin to "read" the wallpaper until she found the escape she was looking for. Through seeing the women in the wallpaper, the narrator realizes that she could not live her life locked up behind bars. At the end of the story, as her husband lies on the floor unconscious, she crawls over him, symbolically rising over him.
SparkNotes : The yellow Wallpaper : Plot overview
Women were even discouraged from writing, because their writing would ultimately create an identity and become a form of defiance for them. Gilman realized that writing became one of the only forms of existence for women at a time where they had very few rights. 5 Gilman explained that the idea for the story originated in her own experience as a patient: "the real purpose of the story was to paper reach. Weir Mitchell, and convince him of the error of his ways". 6 She had suffered years long of depression and consulted a well-known specialist physician who prescribed a " rest cure " which required her to "live as domestic a life as possible". She was forbidden to touch pen, pencil, or brush, and was allowed only two hours of mental stimulation a day. After three months and almost desperate, gilman decided to contravene her diagnosis and started to work again.
Interpretation edit, gilman's interpretation edit, gilman used her writing to explore the role of women in America at the time. She explored issues such as the lack of a life outside the home and nanny the oppressive forces of the patriarchal society. Through her work gilman paved the way for writers such. Alice walker and, sylvia plath. 5, in, the yellow Wallpaper, gilman portrays the narrator's insanity as a way to protest the medical and professional oppression against women at the time. While under the impression that husbands and male doctors were acting with their best interests in mind, women were depicted as mentally weak and fragile. At the time womens rights advocates believed that the outbreak of women being diagnosed as mentally ill was the manifestation of their setbacks regarding the roles they were allowed to play in a male-dominated society.
behind the pattern. Believing she must try to free the woman in the wallpaper, the woman begins to strip the remaining paper off the wall. On the last day of summer, she locks herself in her room to strip the remains of the wallpaper. When John arrives home, she refuses to unlock the door. When he returns with the key, he finds her creeping around the room, circling the walls and touching the wallpaper. She exclaims, "i've got out at last. In spite of you and Jane? and her husband faints as she continues to circle the room, stepping over his inert body each time she passes.
Her supportive, though misunderstanding husband, john, believes it is in her best interests to go on a rest cure after the write birth of their child. The family spends the summer at a colonial mansion that has, in the narrator's words, "something queer about it". She and her husband move into an upstairs room that she assumes was once a nursery, having it serve as their bedroom due to its multitude of windows, which provide the air so needed in her recovery. In addition to the couple, john's sister Jennie is present; she serves as their housekeeper. Like most nurseries at the time the windows are barred, the wallpaper has been torn, and the floor is scratched. The narrator attributes all these to children, as most of the damage is isolated to their reach. Ultimately, though, the reader is left unsure as to the source of the room's damage. The narrator devotes many journal entries to describing the wallpaper in the room its "yellow" smell, its "breakneck" pattern, the missing patches, and the way it leaves yellow smears on the skin and clothing of anyone who touches. She describes how the longer one stays in the bedroom, the more the wallpaper appears to mutate, especially in the moonlight.
Wallpaper, floral striped, wallpaper - next
The yellow Wallpaper " (original title: "The yellow Wall-paper. A story is a short story by American writer, charlotte perkins Gilman, first published in January 1892. The new England Magazine. 1, it is regarded as an important early work of American feminist literature, illustrating attitudes in the 19th century toward women's health, both physical and mental. Presented in the first person, the story is a collection of journal entries written by a woman whose physician husband (John) has rented an old mansion for the summer. Forgoing other rooms in the house, the couple moves into the upstairs nursery. As a form of treatment, the unnamed woman is forbidden from working, and is encouraged to eat well and get plenty of exercise and air, so she can recuperate from what he calls a "temporary nervous depression a slight hysterical tendency a diagnosis type common. 2 3 4, contents, plot summary edit, the story details the descent of a young woman into madness.