This imposes addition hidden cost of research and integration. Opportunity cost A shift to renewables will render thermal plants idle or working at a lower capacity level. This may result into unemployment and loss of investment- which will further aggravate the non-performing assets (NPA) and twin balance sheet (TBS) problems. Land requirement for solar based powerplant is 10 times that of thermal power plant. Hence, widespread adoption of solar plants is not feasible given the land cost to developer, vs food security to the nation. If government gives more subsidies, tax breaks and Incentives to fund clean energy research- there will be opportunity cost of using the same amount of public money in other social sector indictors such as health, education and skilling.
Essay on, global, warming for Children and Students
Because even within economic survey. Niti ayog 3 years document there is inconsistency in the data about energy mix. Cost: Benefit of coal Vs Renewable source coal based Power plants Renewable Energy social Cost coal miners are at a higher pdf risk of chronic bronchitis and other lung diseases. Open pit coal mining aggravates the problems of deforestation, land and water contamination. Thermal plants generate carbon dioxide and other pollutants. This increases chances of acid rain, the concentration of greenhouse gases and has negative impact living organisms. Theyre are harmless to the health of individuals and mother nature. Convenience cost coal based power plants are dispatchable. They can be turned on/off and they adjust output to electrical grid on demand. Wind and solar power are nondispatchable, meaning ever electricity can be generated only when there is fast wind blowing or there is appropriate sunshine. So, weve to store renewable energy in special batteries and upgrade the entire electricity system to adjust to the supply (of wind and sunshine) vs energy demands of households and industries vs the backup system of coal/gas/diesel based powerplant during rain, cloudy weather and other.
But in real exam you cant recollect all the points, so automatically this should come down to 200 words. Q2: coal is Necessary evil Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind can become supplement but not substitutes for coal based power in India. Analyze or despite its social costs and negative externalities, coal is a necessary evil in Indias quest for Human development. Introduction (data) Observe the words given in the question: supplement, substitute. Therefore, better to open the answer with some quantitative dimension of big vs small. In Indias present energy mix consists of 55 coal, 30 oil, 9 natural gas and only 2 is renewable energy sources (OR) In the electricity generation in India, thermal power dominates with 60 of total installed capacity, and within that 3/4th comes from coal based. While, india aim to increase in the overall renewable energy capacity to 1, still at Paris Agreement, weve committed to increase the share of non-fossil power generation to 40 of our installed capacity in proportionate terms. It shows that Indian policymakers give preference of coal over renewables. The reasons are as following: Note: you can make up any supermarket numbers as long as you can show coal is majority.
Even niti ayogs 3 year Action Plan makes recommendations to increase coal production. Conclusion (Summary finding) presentation question asked you to substantiate, so in a way its a discuss type question, therefore conclusion should be summary type. But lets just end by linking with sdg/HDI. Because again summarizing the body will make the answer excessively long. Adoption of renewable energy is a prerequisite in the fight against global warming. But energy access to all, is also a prerequisite in the fight against poverty and low human development. While India understand the significance of both, but disagrees with developed nations priority that the former (Renewables) should take precedence over the latter (HDI).
Nuclear energy has issues related to safety of humans and environment, availability of fuel and technology. The land requirement for solar powerplant is 10 times that of thermal power plant. This has implications on project cost and food security. A 180 degree shift to renewables will render thermal plants idle, leading to unemployment and further aggravation of the npa twin balance sheet problem. Wind and solar power are nondispatchable,. Energy can be generated only when there is wind blowing or there is appropriate sunshine. This imposes additional cost of storage and backup system. Therefore, government of India aims for 175GW renewable energy by 2022 on one hand, while simultenously carrying out coal block auctions, and providing financial support to thermal power based electricity companies under deendayal Gram jyoti yojana and ujjwal discomm assurance yojana.
Global, warming, essay : causes, Effects solutions
2015: rbi included renewable energy projects under the Priority sector lending norms (PSL) 2017: sebi notified framework for issuing green bonds and listing them on stock exchange for better public participation. Encyclopedic knowledge is a curse in upsc mains exam. Because youll have neither the time nor space to express. These many schemes are more than sufficient. You dont even have to mention the years like ive done. Body2: India for vs Carbon Imperialism In the first part of the answer, we proved that India has made sincere attempts towards low carbon economy, now lets point out why we cant blindly imitate first worlds clean energy obsession.
Since the age of industrialization, first world economies grew on coal based energy. The present global warming is a lagged result of their pollution. But, when India or China try to grow in the same way, essay theyre chided (censured) by the first world media and politicians. Simultenously, at the unfccc negotiations, the first world countries remain ambivalent about how much financial and technological support are they willing to provide for such adoption of clean fuel. Coal offers the cheapest source of energy, therefore Indias electricity infrastructure is built around this fuel. Alternatives are neither cheap, competitive nor convenient because: Hydel energy requires construction of large dams. Implications: displacement of people and ecological concerns.
1B: Carbon Tax 2010: government of India began levying coal Cess on domestically mined and imported coal. Its proceeds are utilized for funding clean energy research. Budget 2016: 1) coal Cess increased.400 per ton 2) It was renamed as Clean Environment Cess. 2014-16: As crude oil prices kept falling in the global market, other nations kept passing on the benefits to final consumers. But India kept hiking the excise duty, thereby keeping a check on excessive consumption of petrol and diesel.
Although this was done to keep fiscal deficit in check and augment the treasury, but since Economic Survey vol.1 portray it in such positive light, so lets roll with that. 2017: In goods and services tax (GST) regime, environmentally demerit goods such as sports utility vehicles (SUVs) are kept higher tax slab and gst compensation Cess is also imposed on them. Im not going into the criticism that gst removed coal cess thus it might hurt the funding of clean energy research. Because a candidate doing such nitpicking and elaborations will A) divert from the original question B) run out of time and space in the actual exam 1C: Schemes, missions, Initiatives 2008: National Action Plan on Climate Change, with missions on 1) solar energy 2) enhanced. 2013: Green Corridor Program to address the fluctuations/variability in the renewable power supply by power Grid Corporation of India. 2015: Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Hybrid electric Vehicles (fame india) by heavy industries Ministry.
Words, short, essay on, global, warming
Sounds good for Twitter tirade but as a formal introduction, its less appropriate. And ultimately you had to explain carbon imperialism so better open with the definition. Body1: India believes in Low carbon economy. In the first part of the answer, well mention Indias initiatives and commitments regarding clean energy 1A: indc at the unfccc summit at Paris (2015 India made following voluntary commitments/Intended Nationally determined Contributions (indc with 2030 as deadline: to reduce the emission intensity of gdp. To increase the share of non-fossil based power generation capacity to 40 per cent of installed golf electric power capacity (cumulative). To create an additional carbon sink.5-3 gigatonne carbon dioxide through additional afforestation. As such, upsc mcqs (or descriptive questions) dont test your memory power of dates, names and numbers, but the above indc points must be memorized.
primary motives: to sell their nuclear fuel and technology. To portray the third world in bad light for using coal power and thereby reducing their own culpability for global warming. Origin, paris Agreement is a multilateral framework for climate action post-2020 period, when kyoto protocol expires. It requires the member states to set voluntary targets upon themselves to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (ghg since Im using the ghg term for the first time in this answer, ive expanded the full form. But even if you give origin of Paris deal, still youll have to explain Carbon imperialism. Therefore, first approach (define) is the better method for introduction in this case. Data, in terms of population, though usa is 1/4th of India, it consumes atleast 35 more coal energy than India, and yet at international summits, usa asks India and China to do more against global warming, disregarding the fact that 304 million, indians do not. Instead of helping India in these matters in financially and technologically, the same usa backed out of Paris deal in June-2017! This is an example of Carbon Imperialism.
Despite its social apple costs and negative externalities, coal is a necessary evil in Indias quest for human development. Upsc ias/ips mains Syllabus Relevance? (GSM2 bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting Indias interests. In context of Paris Summit, cea arvind Subramanian says we should not blindly imitate the renewable energy obsession of the first world, and must resist carbon imperialism. (GSM3 Infrastructure: Energy, environmental pollution and degradation: The latest Economic survey 2016-17 Vol.2 chapter 5 points out that though coal has social / environmental costs, we cant substitute it with renewable energy. Q1: Carbon Imperialism,. While India believes in low carbon economy, it cant be subservient to carbon imperialism.
1000, words, essay on, global, warming
Mock questions for upsc mains, q1: Carbon Imperialism, introduction (Define origin data). Body1: India believes in Low carbon economy 1A: indc 1B: Carbon Tax 1C: Schemes, missions, Initiatives, body2: India vs Carbon Imperialism, conclusion (Summary finding). Q2: coal is Necessary evil, introduction (data cost: Benefit of coal Vs write Renewable. Conclusion (Summary finding model Answer in Hindi, introductions / : : : Conclusion /. Mock questions for upsc civil Services mains Exam: Answer the following questions- each in 200 words, 8 minutes, black/blue pen on A4 sized blank page with 1 margin on each sides: While India believes in low carbon economy, it cant be subservient to carbon imperialism. Substantiate in context of Paris Agreement. Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind can become supplement but not substitutes for coal based power in India.