We have enough ill-will and prejudice to cope with. Must we hasten to create further fissiparous forces?" 33 Despite the general attitude of the bengalis, rajagopalachari was highly regarded and respected by Chief Minister Prafulla Chandra Ghosh and the state cabinet. 31 governor-General of India edit during a 1948 tour of southern India, women in Mysore removing their gold necklaces and giving them to rajagopalachari as a sign of honor From 10 until 24 november 1947, rajagopalachari served as Acting governor-General of India in the absence. 34 Rajagopalachari led a very simple life in the viceregal palace, washing his own clothes and polishing his own shoes. 35 Impressed with his abilities, mountbatten made rajagopalachari his second choice to succeed him after Vallabhbhai patel, when he was to leave india in June 1948. 36 Rajagopalachari was eventually chosen as the governor-general when Nehru disagreed with mountbatten's first choice, as did Patel himself. 36 he was initially hesitant but accepted when Nehru wrote to him, "I hope you will not disappoint. We want you to help us in many ways.
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13 In 1944, he proposed a solution to the Indian Constitutional tangle. 13 In the same year, he proposed an "absolute majority" threshold of 55 per cent when leader deciding whether a district should become part of India or pakistan, 31 triggering a huge controversy among nationalists. to 1947, rajagopalachari served as the minister for Industry, supply, education and Finance in the Interim government headed by jawaharlal Nehru. 13 governor of West Bengal edit When India and pakistan attained independence on, the British province of Bengal was partitioned into two, with West Bengal becoming part of India and East Bengal part of pakistan. Supported language by jawaharlal Nehru, rajagopalachari was appointed first governor of West Bengal. 32 Disliked by bengalis for his criticism of the bengali revolutionary subhas Chandra bose during the 1938 Tripuri congress session, 33 Rajagopalachari's appointment was unsuccessfully opposed by bose's brother Sarat Chandra bose. 33 During his tenure as governor, rajagopalachari's priorities were to deal with refugees and to bring peace and stability in the aftermath of the calcutta riots. 33 he declared his commitment to neutrality and justice at a meeting of Muslim businessmen: "Whatever may be my defects or lapses, let me assure you that I shall never disfigure my life with any deliberate acts of injustice to any community whatsoever." 33 Rajagopalachari. 33 One such proposal by the editor of an important newspaper led to the reply: "I see that you are not able to restrain the policy of agitation over inter-provincial boundaries. It is easy to yield to current pressure of opinion and it is difficult to impose on enthusiastic people any policy of restraint. But i earnestly plead that we should do all we can to prevent ill-will from hardening into a chronic disorder.
13 he also opposed the quit India movement and instead advocated dialogue with the British. He reasoned that passivity and neutrality paper would be harmful to India's interests at a time when the country was threatened with invasion. He also advocated dialogue with the muslim league, which was demanding the partition of India. He subsequently resigned from the party and the assembly following differences over resolutions passed by the madras Congress legislative party and disagreements with the leader of the madras provincial Congress. 13 Following the end of the war in 1945, elections followed in the madras Presidency in 1946. During the last years of the war, kamaraj was requested by nehru, pm; Sardar Vallabbhai patel, home minister; and maulana Abul Kalam azad to make rajaji the Premier of Madras Presidency. Kamaraj, President of the tamil Nadu congress Committee, was forced to make tanguturi Prakasam as Chief Ministerial candidate, by the elected members, to prevent Rajagopalachari from winning. However, rajagopalachari did not contest the elections, and Prakasam was elected. Rajaji was instrumental in initiating negotiations between Gandhi and Jinnah.
26 This measure sparked off widespread anti-hindi protests, which led to violence in some places and the jailing of over 1,200 men, women and children who took part in the unrest. 27 Two protesters, Thalamuthu nadar and Natarasan, essay were killed during the protests. 27 In 1940, congress ministers resigned in protest over the declaration of war on Germany without their consent, leaving the governor to take over the reins of the administration. On 21 February 1940 the unpopular new law on the use of Hindi was quickly repealed by the governor of Madras. 27 Despite its numerous shortcomings, madras under Rajagopalachari was still considered by political historians as the best administered province in British India. 28 Second World War edit cr with Mahatma gandhi during the gandhi-jinnah talks, 1944 Some months after the outbreak of the second World War, rajagopalachari resigned as premier along with other members of his cabinet in protest at the declaration of war by the viceroy. Rajagopalachari was arrested in December 1940, in accordance with the defence of India rules, and sentenced to one-year in prison. 13 However, subsequently, rajagopalachari differed in opposition to the British war effort.
13 Madras Presidency 193739 edit Premier Rajagopalachari at a rally in Ootacamund, 1939 main article: Chief Ministership of Rajagopalachari The Indian National Congress first came to power in the madras Presidency (also called Madras Province by the British following the madras elections of 1937. Except for a six-year period when Madras was under the governor's direct rule, the congress administered the presidency until India became independent on 20 At the age of 59, rajagopalachari entered the Assembly as the first Premier of the madras Presidency from the congress party. Rajagopalachari issued the temple Entry authorization and Indemnity Act 1939, under which restrictions were removed on Dalits and Shanars entering Hindu temples. 4 21 In the same year, the meenakshi temple at Madurai was also opened to the dalits and Shanars. In March 1938 Rajagopalachari introduced the Agricultural Debt Relief Act, to ease the burden of debt on the province's peasant population. 4 he also introduced prohibition, 4 22 along with a sales tax to compensate for the loss of government revenue that resulted from the ban on alcohol. 23 As a result of the revenue decline resulting from prohibition, the Provincial government shut down hundreds of government-run primary schools, 24 a decision that Rajagopalachari's political opponents alleged deprived many low-caste and Dalit students of their education. His opponents also attributed casteist motives to his government's implementation of Gandhi's nai talim scheme into the education system. 24 Rajagopalachari's tenure as Chief Minister of Madras is largely remembered for the compulsory introduction of Hindi in educational institutions, which made him highly unpopular.
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After Mahatma gandhi joined the Indian independence movement in 1919, rajagopalachari summary became one of his followers. 11 15 he participated in the non-cooperation movement and gave up his law practice. 13 In 1921, he was elected to the congress Working Committee and served as the general Secretary of the party 13 before making his first major breakthrough as a leader during the 1922 Indian National Congress session at gaya when he strongly opposed collaboration with. 16 17 While gandhi was in prison, rajagopalachari led the group of "no-changers individuals against contesting elections for the Imperial Legislative council and other provincial legislative councils, in opposition to the "Pro-changers" who advocated council entry. 18 When the motion was put to the vote, the "No-changers" won by 1,748 to 890 votes resulting in the resignation of important Congress leaders including Pandit Motilal Nehru and. Das, the President of the Indian National Congress.
19 19 When the Indian National Congress split in 1923, rajagopalachari was a member of the civil Disobedience Enquiry committee. 13 he was also involved in the vaikom Satyagraha movement against untouchability during 192425. In the early 1930s, rajagopalachari emerged as one of the major leaders of the tamil Nadu congress. When Gandhi organised the dandi march in 1930, rajagopalachari broke the salt laws at Vedaranyam, near Nagapattinam, along with Indian independence activist Sardar Vedaratnam and was afterwards imprisoned by the British. 11 13 he was subsequently elected President of the tamil Nadu congress Committee. 13 Following enactment of the government of India act in 1935, rajagopalachari was instrumental in getting the Indian National Congress to participate in the 1937 general elections.
4 6 Mangamma died in 1916 whereupon Rajagopalachari took sole responsibility for the care of his children. 4 His son Chakravarthi rajagopalachari narasimhan was elected to the lok sabha from Krishnagiri in the 19 elections and served as a member of parliament for Krishnagiri from 1952 to 1962. 7 8 he later wrote a biography of his father. Rajagopalachari's daughter lakshmi married devdas Gandhi, son of Mahatma gandhi 4 9 while his grandsons include biographer Rajmohan Gandhi, philosopher Ramchandra gandhi and former governor of West Bengal Gopalkrishna gandhi. 10 Indian Independence movement edit rajagopalachari's interest in public affairs and politics began when he commenced his legal practice in Salem in 1900.
11 Inspired by Indian independence activist Bal Gangadhar Tilak 9 in the early 1900s, he later became a member of the salem municipality in 1911. 12 In 1917, rajagopalachari was elected Chairman of the municipality and served from 1917 to during which time he was responsible for the election of the first Dalit member of the salem municipality. Rajagopalachari joined the Indian National Congress and participated as a delegate in the 1906 Calcutta session and the 1907 Surat session. 5 In 1917, he defended Indian independence activist. Varadarajulu naidu against charges of sedition 14 and two years later participated in the agitations against the rowlatt Act. 13 15 Rajagopalachari was a close friend of the founder of Swadeshi Steam navigation Company. Chidambaram Pillai as well as greatly admired by Indian independence activists Annie besant and.
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5 As a young child, he was admitted to a village school in Thorapalli 5 then at the age of five moved with his family to hosur where rajagopalachari enrolled at Hosur. V.government boys Hr sec School. 5 he passed his matriculation examinations in 1891 and graduated in arts from Central College, bangalore literature in 1894. 5 Rajagopalachari also studied law at the Presidency college, madras, from where he graduated in 1897. 4 Rajagopalachari married Alamelu mangalamma in 1897 4 and the couple had five children; gender three sons—. Ramaswami—and two daughters— lakshmi gandhi née. And Namagiri Ammal.
Rajagopalachari was an accomplished writer who made lasting contributions to Indian English literature and is also credited with composition of the song Kurai onrum Illai set to carnatic music. He pioneered temperance and temple entry movements in India and advocated resume Dalit upliftment. He has been criticised for introducing the compulsory study of Hindi and the controversial Madras Scheme of Elementary Education in Madras State. Critics have often attributed his pre-eminence in politics to his standing as a favourite of both Mahatma gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru. Rajagopalachari was described by gandhi as the "keeper of my conscience". Contents Early life edit rajagopalachari was born to Chakravarti venkataryan, munsiff of Thorapalli village 3 and Chakravarti singaramma on 10 December 1878 in Thorapalli, madras Presidency. 4 The couple already had two sons, Chakravarti narasimhachari and Chakravarti Srinivasa. 5 A weak and sickly child, rajagopalachari was a constant worry to his parents who feared that he might not live long.
response to the dandi march. In 1937, rajagopalachari was elected Premier of the madras Presidency and served until 1940, when he resigned due to Britain's declaration of war on Germany. He later advocated co-operation over Britain's war effort and opposed the quit India movement. He favoured talks with both Muhammad Ali jinnah and the muslim league and proposed what later came to be known as the. In 1946, rajagopalachari was appointed Minister of Industry, supply, education and Finance in the Interim government of India, and then as the governor of West Bengal from 1947 to 1948, governor-General of India from 1948 to 1950, Union Home minister from 1951 to 1952 and. In 1959, he resigned from the Indian National Congress and founded the Swatantra party, which fought against the congress in the 1962, 19 elections. Rajagopalachari was instrumental in setting up a united Anti-congress front in Madras state under. Annadurai, which swept the 1967 elections. He died on 25 December 1972 at age.
Chief Minister of Madras state. Rajagopalachari founded the, swatantra party and was one of the first recipients of India's highest civilian award, the. He vehemently opposed the use of nuclear weapons and was a proponent of world peace and disarmament. During his lifetime, he also acquired the nickname 'mango of Krishnagiri'. Rajagopalachari was born in the village. Thorapalli in the, krishnagiri district of the, madras Presidency (now the Krishnagiri district of Tamil Nadu) and educated. Central College, bangalore, and, presidency college, madras. In 1900 he started a legal practice that in time became prosperous. On entering politics, he became a member and later President guaranteed of the.
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In this, indian name, the summary name, chakravarti is a patronymic, not a family name, and the person should be referred to by the given name, rajagopalachari. Chakravarti rajagopalachari (10 December December 1972) informally called. R., was an Indian politician, independence activist, lawyer, writer and statesman. 1, rajagopalachari was the last, governor-General of India, as India soon became a republic in 1950. Furthermore, he was the first Indian-born governor-general, since before him the posts were held by British nationals. He also served as leader of the. Indian National Congress, premier of the madras Presidency, governor of West Bengal, minister for Home Affairs of the Indian Union and.