Follow the majority usage in independent, reliable sources for any given subject (e.g. The out-of-Towners but The history of Middle-earth ). If neither spelling is clearly dominant in sources, default to lowercase after a hyphen, per the general rule. Subtitles : Not everything in parentheses (round brackets) is a subtitle. For titles with subtitles or parenthetical phrases, capitalize the first word of each element, even if it would not normally be capitalized, if the element is either: a clause that can stand alone as a title and is sometimes used that way, as a short. Examples: Remember not, lord, our offences, a musical setting of excerpted passage from a liturgical text "An act to enforce the 15th amendment to the constitution of the United States the beginning of the voting Rights Act of 1965 and sometimes used as a long. Capitalization in foreign-language titles varies, even over time within the same language.
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For other article titles, wikipedia uses sentence case. In sentence case, generally only the first word and all proper names are capitalized (this is also true of section headings, captions, etc. Examples: List of selection theorems, women's rights in haiti. WP:Citing sources Citation style permits the use of pre-defined, off-wikipedia citation styles within wikipedia, and some of these expect sentence case for certain titles (usually article and chapter titles). Title case should not be imposed on such titles under such a citation style when that style is the one consistently used in an article. Always capitalized: When using title case, the following words should be capitalized: The first and last word of the title every adjective, adverb, noun, pronoun, and subordinating conjunction ( me, it, his, if, etc.) every verb, including forms of to be ( be, am,. but see above for instances where these words are not used as prepositions The word to in infinitives. Other styles exist with regard to prepositions, including three- or even two-letter rules in news and entertainment journalism, and capitalization of no prepositions at all at many academic profit publishers. These styles are not used on wikipedia, including for titles of pop-culture or academic works. Hyphenation: The general rule in English to not capitalize after a hyphen unless what follows the hyphen is itself a proper name (as in post-soviet) is often ignored in titles of works.
The comma and question mark are both part of the title and are therefore italicized. Where subtitle punctuation is unclear (e.g. Because the subtitle is given on a separate line on the cover or a poster use a colon and a space, not a dash, comma, or other punctuation, to separate the title elements. If there are two subtitles, a dash can be used between the second and third elements. Capital letters edit for capitalization in business wikipedia article titles, see wikipedia:Naming conventions (capitalization). In titles of English-language works, every word except for definite and indefinite articles, short coordinating conjunctions, and short prepositions is capitalized (including subtitles, if any). This is known as title case. Capitalization of non-English titles varies by language (see below ). Wikipedia normally follows these conventions when referring to such works, whether in the name of an article or within the text.
Series titles edit descriptive titles for media franchises and fictional universes (including trilogies and other series of novels or films) should not be placed in italics or"tion marks, even when based on a character or feature of the works (Tolkien's Middle-earth writings, the marvel. However, the following should be set in italics: Punctuation edit Place adjacent punctuation outside any italics or"tion marks unless the punctuation is part of the title itself. Johnson spoke often of Huckleberry finn, his favorite novel. . The comma is not part of the title and therefore is not italicized. George Orwell's well-known essay, " Politics and the English Language condemned the hypocrisy endemic in political writing and speech. . The commas are not part of the title and are therefore outside the"tion marks. O brother, Where Art Thou? Is a 2000 comedic film. .
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Additional markup edit If a title is enclosed in"tion marks, do not include the"tion marks in any additional formatting markup. For example, if a title in"tion marks is the subject of a wikipedia article and therefore displayed in boldface in the lead section, the"tion marks should not be in boldface because they are not part of the title itself. For further information, see wikipedia:Manual of Style Punctuation. Titles in"tion marks that include (or in unusual cases consist of) something that requires italicization for some other reason than being a title,. A genus and species name, or a foreign-language phrase, or the name of a larger work being referred to, also use the needed italicization, inside the"tion marks: "Ferromagnetic Material in the eastern Red-spotted Newt Notophthalmus viridescens " (an academic journal article containing an italicized. Neither edit There are cases in which the title should be in neither thesis italics nor"tion marks (though many are capitalized Scripture of large, well-known religions (see details at Scripture, below) Legal or constitutional documents: temporary restraining order, canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, bill. With their own grounds and spanning more than one building and concerts or other large media events: Expo 2010, cannes Film Festival, burning Man, lollapalooza works named by a generic title: Symphony.
2 by gustav mahler., Shakespeare's Sonnet 130., The magnificat by Schütz. The Adagio sometimes attributed to Albinoni Smaller parts of larger works when they are simply numbered sequentially, and the title appears that way in the work (or a preponderance of reliable sources about the work to kill a mockingbird, part One, chapter 1 Names (not. For example, bible, quran, talmud, bhagavad Gita, adi Granth, book of Mormon, and avesta are not italicized. Their constituent parts, such as book of Ruth, new Testament, or Gospel of Matthew are not italicized either, as such titles are generally traditional rather than original ones. However, the titles of specific published versions of sacred texts writing should be italicized, such as the authorized King James Version or the new Edition of the babylonian Talmud. Many relatively obscure sacred texts are also generally italicized, particularly if the work is not likely to be well-known to the wikipedia reader, if the work was first published in modern times and has not undergone substantial changes, or if it might be unclear that. For example, the Urantia book, the satanic Bible, divine Principle, and Gylfaginning should be italicized.
Minor works edit Italics are generally used only for titles of longer works. Titles of shorter works should be enclosed in double"tion marks text like this. It particularly applies to works that exist as a smaller part of a larger work. Examples of titles which are"d but not italicized: Articles, essays, papers, or conference presentation notes (stand-alone or in a collected larger work "The dos and Don'ts of Dating Online" is an article by Phil "Dr. Phil" McGraw on his advice site.
Chapters of a longer work (they may be labeled alternatively,. Sections, parts, or "books" within an actual book, etc.) Entries in a reference work (dictionary, encyclopedia, etc.) Single episodes or plot arcs of a television series or other serial audio-visual program: " The germans " is an episode of the television programme fawlty towers Exhibits. Pepper's Lonely hearts Club Band " appears on the album also titled Sgt. Pepper's Lonely hearts Club Band Speeches, lectures, and conference presentations (only if given a specific title) This convention also applies to songs, speeches, manuscripts, etc., with no known formal titles but which are conventionally referred to by lines from them as if they were titles. A the formatting of the title of a pamphlet, which is on the divide between a booklet or short book on the one hand and a leaflet or brochure on the other specifically, whether to italicize the title or place it within"tion marks . Anything that has been assigned an isbn or issn should be italicized. Another rule of thumb is that if the work is intended to stand alone and to be kept for later reference, or is likely to be seen as having merit as a stand-alone work, italicize. Use"tion marks if the item is entirely ephemeral, trivial, or simply promotional of some other work or product.
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Game or sport moves, logical arguments, "artisanal" products, schools of practice or thought, Internet memes, aphorisms etc.). Similar cases edit some similar cases that are not titles of works include: Certain scientific names : named genes (but not proteins encoded by them genus and a literature lower taxon (e.g. Species and subspecies but not higher taxa (see wp:Manual of Style/Text formatting Scientific names for details) Specific, named transportation vehicles (but not prefixes, classifications, identifying numbers or other designations for them including ships, spacecraft, trains, and locomotives (but not smaller conveyances such as cars. Example: xtuss baltimore (CA-68 the lead ship of the baltimore -class cruisers (see wp:Manual of Style/Text formatting Vessels for details) Link formatting edit to display text in italics, enclose it in double apostrophes. The mary tyler moore Show is summary produced by italicizing around (not inside) the link: The mary tyler moore Show. If the title is also a wikilink but only part of it should be italicized, use italics around or inside a piped link to properly display the title: Casablanca is produced by casablanca (film)Casablanca or Casablanca (film Casablanca. Without piping, this wikilink would display and incorrectly italicize the disambiguation term, which is not part of the film title. Italicizing wikipedia article titles edit further information: wikipedia:Article titles Italics and other formatting If the title of a wikipedia article requires italicization, there are two options:"tion marks edit This section is about use of"tion marks in titles of works of art or artifice.
rather than a name (see mos:vatitle for more detail) Periodicals (newspapers, journals, magazines) Plays (including published screenplays and teleplays) Long or epic poems Officially named series of major works: The lord of the rings. Minor works (any specifically-titled subdivisions of italicized major works) are given in"tion marks (see wikipedia:Manual of Style/Text formatting When not to use italics for details). Website titles may or may not be italicized depending on the type of site and what kind of content it features. Online magazines, newspapers, and news sites with original content should generally be italicized ( Salon or HuffPost ). Online encyclopedias and dictionaries should also be italicized ( Scholarpedia or Merriam-Webster Online ). Other types of websites should be decided on a case-by-case basis. These cases are well-established conventions recognized in most style guides. Do not apply italics to other categories or instances because you feel they are creative or artful (e.g.
2 by gustav mahler, known as the. Non-generic name stravinsky's Cantata is a work friend for soprano, tenor, female choir, and instrumental ensemble. On an overgrown Path (Czech: po zarostlém chodníčku ) is a cycle of thirteen piano pieces written by leoš janáček. Comic books, comic strips, graphic novels and manga. Video games, board games, trading card games. Court case names, but not case citation or law report details included with the case name: Brown. Board of Education, 347. 483 (1954 named exhibitions (artistic, historical, scientific, educational, cultural, literary, etc. .
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This part of the, manual of Style covers title formats and summary style for works of art or artifice, such as capitalization and italics versus"tion marks. Contents, italics edit, see also: wikipedia:Article titles Italics and other formatting, and. Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Text formatting Italic face. Italic type ( text like this, marked up with pairs of apostrophes as text like this should be used for the following types of names and titles, or abbreviations thereof: Major works edit, audio albums (musical or spoken-word books, multi-volume works (e.g. Non-generic names of major independent compositions (see. Wikipedia:Naming conventions (music) Definitions italics for more detail musicals, operas, operettas and other self-contained pieces of musical theatre. Named oratorios, cantatas, motets, orchestral works, and other compositions beyond the scope of a single song or dance: Symphony.