In the 19th century, "language" was considered a property of "ethnicity and thus the speakers of the Indo-Iranian or Indo-european languages came to be called the " Aryan race as contradistinguished from what came to be called the " Semitic race ". By the late 19th century, among some people, the notions of an "Aryan race" became closely linked to nordicism, which posited Northern European racial superiority over all other peoples. This " master race " ideal engendered both the " Aryanization " programs of nazi germany, in which the classification of people as "Aryan" and "non-Aryan" was most emphatically directed towards the exclusion of Jews. 65 note 6 by the end of World War ii, the word 'Aryan' had become associated by many with the racial ideologies and atrocities committed by the nazis. Western notions of an " Aryan race " rose to prominence in late-19th- and early-20th-century racialism, an idea most notably embraced by nazism. The nazis believed that the " Nordic peoples " (who were also referred to as the " Germanic peoples represent an ideal and "pure race" that was the purest representation of the original racial stock of those who were then called the Proto-Aryans.
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45 In Iranian languages, the original self-identifier lives on in ethnic names like " Alans " Iron ". 46 Similarly, the word Iran is the persian word for land/place of bad the Aryan. 27 In Latin literature The word Arianus was used to designate Ariana, 59 the area comprising North-western India, afghanistan, Iran and pakistan. 60 In 1601, Philemon Holland used 'Arianes' in his translation of the latin Arianus to designate the inhabitants of Ariana. This was the first use of the form Arian verbatim in the English language. In 1844 James Cowles Prichard first designated both the Indians book and the Iranians "Arians" under the false assumption that the Iranians as well as the Indians self-designated themselves Aria. The Iranians did use the form Airya as a designation for the "Aryans but Prichard had mistaken Aria (deriving from oper. Haravia) as a designation of the "Aryans" and associated the Aria with the place-name Ariana (Av. Airyana the homeland of the Aryans. 64 The form Aria as a designation of the "Aryans" was, however, only preserved in the language of the Indo-Aryans. In European languages The term "Aryan" came to be used as the term for the newly discovered Indo-european languages, and, by extension, the original speakers of those languages.
In Greek the inscription says: "ego. Tou arianon ethnous despotes eimi" which translates to "I am the king of the Aryans". In the middle persian Shapour says: "I am the lord of the EranShahr" and paper in Parthian he says: "I am the lord of AryanShahr". 49 55 The bactrian language (a middle Iranian language) inscription of Kanishka the Great, the founder of the kushan Empire at Rabatak, which was discovered in 1993 in an unexcavated site in the Afghanistan province of Baghlan, clearly refers to this Eastern Iranian language. 56 57 In the post-Islamic era one can still see a clear usage of the term Aryan (Iran) in the work of the 10th-century historian Hamzah al-Isfahani. In his famous book "The history of Prophets and Kings al-Isfahani writes, "Aryan which is also called Pars is in the middle of these countries and these six countries surround it because the south East is in the hands China, the north of the turks. 58 All this evidence shows that the name arya "Iranian" was a collective definition, denoting peoples (Geiger,. . 167.; Schmitt, 1978,. . 31) who were aware of belonging to the one ethnic stock, speaking a common language, and having a religious tradition that centered on the cult of Ahura mazdā.
52 Although Darius the statement Great called his language the Aryan language, 52 modern scholars refer to it as Old Persian 52 because it is the ancestor about of modern Persian language. 53 The Old Persian and avestan evidence is confirmed by the Greek sources. 45 Herodotus in his Histories remarks about the Iranian Medes that: "These medes were called anciently by all people Arians; " (7.62). In Armenian sources, the parthians, medes and Persians are collectively referred to as Aryans. 54 Eudemus of Rhodes apud Damascius (Dubitationes et solutiones in Platonis Parmenidem 125 bis) refers to "the magi and all those of Iranian (áreion) lineage diodorus Siculus (1.94.2) considers Zoroaster (Zathraustēs) as one of the Arianoi. 45 Strabo, in his geography, mentions the unity of Medes, persians, bactrians and Sogdians : 48 The name of Ariana is further extended to a part of Persia and of Media, as also to the bactrians and Sogdians on the north; for these speak approximately. — Geography,.8 The trilingual inscription erected by Shapur's command gives us a more clear description. The languages used are parthian, middle persian and Greek.
Arya may also be found as an ethnonym in Iranian languages,. G., Alan and Persian Iran and Ossetian Ir/Iron 46 The name is itself equivalent to Aryan, where Iran means "land of the Aryans and has been in use since sassanid times. 49 50 The avesta clearly uses airya/airyan as an ethnic name (Vd. where it appears in expressions such as airyāfi; daiŋhāvō "Iranian lands, peoples airyō.šayanəm "land inhabited by Iranians and airyanəm vaējō vaŋhuyāfi; dāityayāfi; "Iranian stretch of the good dāityā the river Oxus, the modern Āmū daryā. 45 Old Persian sources also use this term for Iranians. Old Persian which is a testament to the antiquity of the persian language and which is related to most of the languages/dialects spoken in Iran including modern Persian, the kurdish languages, and Gilaki makes it clear that Iranians referred to themselves as Arya. The term "Airya/Airyan" appears in the royal Old Persian inscriptions in three different contexts: As the name of the language of the Old Persian version of the inscription of Darius i in Behistun As the ethnic background of Darius i in inscriptions at Naqsh-e-rostam and. For example in the Dna and Dse darius and Xerxes describe themselves as "An Achaemenian, a persian son of a persian and an Aryan, of Aryan stock".
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All Aryan reich citizens were required to prove their Aryan ancestry, one way was to obtain an Ahnenpass by providing proof through baptismal certificates that all four grandparents were of Aryan descent. 40 In December 1935, the ieee nazis founded Lebensborn to counteract the falling Aryan birth rates in Germany, and to promote nazi eugenics. 41 Usage and adaptation in other languages In Indian/Sanskrit literature In Sanskrit and related Indic languages, ārya means "one who does noble deeds; a noble one". Āryāvarta "abode of the ārya s" is a common name for North India in Sanskrit literature. Manusmṛti (2.22) gives the name to "the tract between the himalaya and the vindhya ranges, from the eastern sea to the western sea". 42 The title ārya was used with various modifications throughout the Indian Subcontinent.
Kharavela, the Emperor of Kalinga of around 1 bce, is referred to as an ārya in the hathigumpha inscriptions of the Udayagiri and Khandagiri caves in Bhubaneswar, odisha. The gurjara-Pratihara rulers in the 10th century were titled " Maharajadhiraja of Āryāvarta". 43 Various Indian religions, chiefly hinduism, jainism and Buddhism, use the term ārya as an epithet of honour; a similar usage is found in the name of Arya samaj. In Ramayana and Mahabharata, ārya is used as an honorific sula for many characters including Hanuman. Indo-european language throughout Europe and the middle east 500 bce in Iranian literature Unlike the several meanings connected with ārya- in Old Indo-Aryan, the Old Persian term only has an ethnic meaning. 44 45 That is in contrast to Indian usage, in which several secondary meanings evolved, the meaning of ar- as a self-identifier is preserved in Iranian usage, hence the word "Iran". The airya meant "Iranian and Iranian anairya 24 46 meant and means "non-Iranian".
A review of numerous other ideas, and the various problems with each is given by Oswald szemerényi. 21 Usage Scholarly usage contemporary usage Indian and Iranian nationalism The term "Aryan" is used by Indian nationalists and Iranian nationalists to refer themselves. 32 33 vague 34 nazism and white supremacy Arno Breker 's sculpture die partei (The party), demonstrating the ideal characteristics of a nordic Aryan. During the 19th century it was proposed that "Aryan" was also the self-designation of the Proto-Indo-europeans. Based on speculations that the Proto-Indo-european homeland was located in northern Europe, a 19th-century hypothesis which is now abandoned, the word developed a racialist meaning.
The nazis used the word "Aryan" to describe people in a racial sense. The nazi official Alfred Rosenberg believed that the nordic race was descended from Proto-Aryans, who he believed had prehistorically dwelt on the north German Plain and who had ultimately originated from the lost continent of Atlantis. 35 According to nazi racial theory, the term "Aryan" described the germanic peoples. 36 However, a satisfactory definition of "Aryan" remained problematic during nazi germany. 37 The nazis considered the most purest Aryans to be those that belonged to the " Nordic race " physical ideal, known as the " master race " during nazi germany. Note 5 Although the physical ideal of the nazi racial theorists was typically the tall, fair-haired and light-eyed Nordic individual, such theorists accepted the fact that a considerable variety of hair and eye colour existed within the racial categories they recognised. For example, adolf Hitler and many nazi officials had dark hair and were still considered members of the Aryan race under nazi racial doctrine, because the determination of an individual's racial type depended on a preponderance of many characteristics in an individual rather than. 39 In September 1935, the nazis passed the nuremberg Laws.
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Note 3 The zend airya 'venerable' and Old Persian ariya are also derivates of *aryo-, and are also self-designations. 5 24 note 4 In Iranian languages, the original self-identifier lives on in ethnic names like " Alans " and " Iron ". 26 Similarly, the name of Iran is the persian word entry for land/place of the Aryans. 27 Pre-Proto-Indo-Iranians The Proto-Indo-Iranian term is hypothesized to have proto-Indo-european origins, 20 21 while according to szemerényi it is probably a near-Eastern loanword from the Ugaritic ary, online kinsmen. It has been postulated the Proto-Indo-european root word is * ha erós with the meanings "members of one's own (ethnic) group, peer, freeman" as well as the Indo-Iranian meaning of Aryan. Derived from it were words like the hittite prefix arā- meaning member of one's own group, peer, companion and friend; Old Irish aire, meaning "freeman" and "noble" gaulish personal names with Ario- avestan airya- meaning Aryan, Iranian in the larger sense Old Indic ari- meaning. The word *haerós itself is believed to have come from the root * ha er- meaning "put together". The original meaning in Proto-Indo-european had a clear emphasis on the "in-group status" as distinguished from that of outsiders, particularly those captured and incorporated into the group as slaves. While in Anatolia, the base word has come to emphasize personal relationship, in Indo-Iranian the word has taken a more ethnic meaning.
13 Contents Etymology The English word "Aryan" (originally spelt "Arian was borrowed from the sanskrit word ārya, in the 18th century 5 7 14 and thought to be the self-designation used by all Indo-european people. 15 16 Origins The earliest epigraphically attested reference to the word arya occurs in the 6th-century bc behistun inscription, which describes itself as having been composed "in arya language or script" ( 70). As is also the case for all other Old Iranian language usage, the arya of the inscription does not signify anything but " Iranian ". Mallory argues that "As an ethnic designation, the word Aryan is most properly limited to the Indo-Iranians, and most justly to the latter where it still gives its name to the country Iran. Sanskrit inventory In early vedic literature, the term Āryāvarta ( Sanskrit :, abode of the Aryans ) was the name given to northern India, where the Indo-Aryan culture was based. The manusmṛti (2.22) gives the name Āryāvarta to "the tract between the himalaya and the vindhya ranges, from the eastern (bay of Bengal) to the western sea (Arabian sea. 2 18 Initially the term was used as a national name to designate those who worshipped the vedic deities (especially Indra ) and followed Vedic culture (e.g. Performance of sacrifice, yajna ). 5 19 Proto-Indo-Iranian The sanskrit term comes from proto-Indo-Iranian *arya- note 1 20 21 or *aryo-, note 2 the name used by the Indo-Iranians to designate themselves.
abandoned. Scholars point out that, even in ancient times, the idea of being an "Aryan" was religious, cultural and linguistic, not racial. 10 11, drawing on misinterpreted references in the. Rig Veda by western scholars in the 19th century, the term "Aryan" was adopted as a racial category through the works of, arthur de gobineau, whose ideology of race was based on an idea of blonde northern European "Aryans" who had migrated across the world. Through the works of houston Stewart Chamberlain, gobineau's ideas later influenced the nazi racial ideology which saw " Aryan peoples " as innately superior to other putative racial groups. The atrocities committed in the name of this racial ideology have led academics to avoid the term "Aryan which has been replaced, in most cases, by " Indo-Iranian ". The term now only appears in the context of the " Indo-Aryan languages ".
Sign up now, log. Log in to my dictionary. This article is about the cultural and historical concept. For other uses of "Arya" and "Aryan see. aryan online " ( /ɛəriən/ ) 1 is a term that was used as a self-designation. Note 1, the word was used by the. Indic people of the, vedic period in, india as an ethnic label for themselves and to refer to the noble class as well as the geographic region known as Āryāvarta, where, indo-Aryan culture was based. 2 3, the closely related. Iranian people also used the term as an ethnic label for themselves in the.
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Biophilia meaning in the cambridge English Dictionary biophilia meaning in the cambridge English Dictionary. Cambridge dictionaries logo "biophilia" in English, thesaurus: synonyms and supermarket related words, examples for 'biophilia'. These examples are from external sources. Click on the icon to tell us what you think. I was less convinced by what the report refers to as " biophilia which links environmental quality to social behaviour. From the, hansard archive, according to the biophilia hypothesis, our relationships with non-human animals are driven by survival needs: assistance in acquiring food and safety. From, wikipedia, the biophilia hypothesis suggests that the positive emotional response that adult mammals have toward baby mammals across species helps increase the survival rates of all mammals. From, wikipedia, biophilia is genetic meaning those humans who were closely connected to nature throughout history would, presumably, have had better access to food and fresh water. From, wikipedia, create and share your own word lists and quizzes for free!