In 1799, he again sent diplomats to France. This time, the United States and France reached a peaceful settlement. Washington and many other early American leaders opposed political parties. But in the 1790's, the disputes over government policies led to the establishment of two political parties in the United States. Hamilton and his followers, chiefly northerners, formed the federalist Party. The party favoured a strong federal government and generally backed Great Britain in international disputes. Jefferson and his followers, chiefly southerners, established the democratic-Republican Party. The party wanted a weak central government and generally sided with France in foreign disputes.
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In 1796, washington-annoyed by the disputes within his Administration-refused to business seek a third term as president. John Adams succeeded him in 1797. At about that time, french warships began attacking American merchant vessels. Adams, like washington, hoped to use diplomacy to solve foreign problems. He sent diplomats to France to try to end the attacks. But three agents of the French government insulted the diplomats with dishonourable proposals, including a demand for a bribe. The identity of the agents was not revealed. They were simply called x, y, and z, and the incident became known as the xyz you affair. The xyz affair created a furore in the United States. Hamilton and his followers demanded war against France. But Adams was determined to keep the peace.
Jefferson and his followers wanted the shredder United States to back France, while hamilton and his group favoured the British. President Washington insisted that the United States remain neutral in the european war. He rejected French demands for support, and also sent diplomats to Britain and Spain to clear up problems with those countries. Chief Justice john jay, acting for Washington, negotiated the jay treaty with Britain in 1794. The treaty's many provisions included a trade agreement with Britain which-in effect-ended American trade with France. It also included a british promise to remove troops still stationed. In 1795, Thomas Pinckney negotiated the pinckney treaty, or Treaty of San Lorenzo, with Spain. This treaty settled a dispute over the Florida border between the United States and Spain and also gave the United States free use of the mississippi river.
As a result of this compromise, the capital moved to washington,. Jefferson continued to oppose the national bank proposal. But in 1791, congress chartered a national bank for 20 years. The new government also faced problems in foreign affairs. In 1793, France went to war against Britain and Spain. France had helped the Americans in the American revolution, and it summary now expected. Assistance in its war. Americans disagreed over which side to support.
One group, led by secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, wanted the federal government to take vigorous action. Another group, headed by secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, opposed government participation in economic affairs. Hamilton proposed that the federal government increase tariffs and tax certain products made in the United States. The government would use the tax money to pay both its debts and the debts of the states. Hamilton also proposed a government-supported national bank to control government finances. Jefferson and his followers, who included many southerners, finally agreed to support some of Hamilton's financial proposals. In return, hamilton agreed to support a shift of the national capital to the south. Congress approved Hamilton's financial plan and agreed to locate the capital in the south.
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Much opposition to the assignments new Constitution stemmed from the fact that it did not specifically guarantee enough individual rights. In response, 10 amendments known as the bill of Rights were added to the document. The bill of Rights became law on Dec. Among other things, it guaranteed freedom of speech, religion, the press, and the rights to trial by jury and peaceful assembly. Setting up the government.
The constitution provided that the president be elected by an Electoral College, a group of people chosen by the states. In 1789, the Electoral College unani-mously chose washington to serve as the first president. It reelected him unanimously in 1792. The government went into operation in 1789, with its temporary capital in New York city. The capital was moved to Philadelphia in 1790, and to washington,. Early problems and politics, solving financial problems. Americans were divided over how to deal with the financial problems that plagued the new government.
The constitution provided for a two-house legislature-a house of Representatives and a senate. Representation in the house was based on population in order to satisfy the large states. All states received equal representation in the senate, which pleased the small states. The constitution gave many powers to the federal government, including the rights to collect taxes and regulate trade. But the document also reserved certain powers for the states. The constitution provided for three branches of government: the executive, headed by a president; the legislature, made up of the two houses of Congress; and the judiciary, or federal court system.
The creators of the constitution provided for a system of checks and balances among the three branches of government. Each branch received powers and duties that ensured that the other branches would not have too much power. Before the constitution became law, it needed ratification (approval) by nine states. Some Americans still opposed the constitution, and fierce debate over ratification broke out. Finally, on June 21, 1788, new Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify. The bill of Rights.
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Some of remote them wanted a document that gave much power to the federal government. Others wanted to protect the rights of the states and called for a weak central government. Delegates from large states claimed their states should have greater representation in Congress than the small states. But small-state delegates demanded equal representation in Congress. The delegates finally reached agreement on a new Constitution on Sept. The document they produced has often been called a work of political genius. The authors worked out a system of government that satisfied the opposing views of the people of the 1780's. At the same time, they created a system of government flexible enough to continue in its basic form to the present day.
The United States had piled up a huge national debt during the American revolution. But since the federal government could not collect taxes, it was unable to pay the debt and put the country on a sound economic footing. The government even lacked the means for raising money to provide for national defence. The federal government had no power to regulate the nation's trade. In addition, some states issued their own paper money, causing sharp changes in the value of currency and economic chaos. In 1787, delegates from every state except Rhode Island met in Philadelphia to consider revisions to the Articles of Confederation. The delegates agreed to write an entirely new link Constitution. The delegates debated long and hard over the contents of the constitution.
people certain liberties, usually including freedom of speech, religion, and the press. In 1781, the states set up a federal government under laws called the Articles of Confederation. Background to the constitution. The Articles of Confederation gave the federal government the power to declare war and manage foreign affairs. But the Articles did not allow the government to collect taxes, regulate trade, or otherwise direct the activities of the states. Under the Articles, each state worked independently for its own ends. Yet the new nation faced problems that demanded a strong federal government.
Among them were george washington and James Madison of Virginia, alexander Hamilton of New York, and Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania. The authors of the constitution, along with other early leaders such as Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, won lasting fame as the founding Fathers of the United States. At the the start of its history, the United States faced severe financial problems. But before long, the skill of its leaders and the spirit and hard work of its people put the country on a sound economic footing. Early America also faced threats from powerful European nations. Ut masterful diplomacy by washington and other leaders guided the country through its early years in peace. The peace ended with the war of 1812, in which the United States and Great Britain fought again. After the war, America focused its attention on its development, and entered a period of bustling economic growth.
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As a result of the Treaty of Paris of 1783, the new nation controlled all of North America from the Atlantic Ocean to salon the mississippi river between Canada and Florida. Canada, to the north, remained British territory. Great Britain returned Florida to Spain, and Spain continued to control the area west of the mississippi river. The original 13 colonies made up the first 13 states of the United States. Eventually, the American land west of the Appalachian mountains was divided into territories. At the end of the American revolution, the new nation was still a loose confederation of states. But in 1787, American leaders got together and wrote the constitution of the United States. The constitution became the country's basic law and welded it together into a solid political unit. The men who wrote it included some of the most famous and important figures in American history.